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Books - American Diplomacy and the narcotics traffic
Written by Paul Goldstein   

The chief unpublished primary sources consulted for this study were the records of the Department of State for the years i906 to 1939, the records of the Bureau of Insular Affairs for the years 1899 to 1939, both in the National Archives, Washington, D.C., and the Papers of Bishop Charles H. Brent in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress. The State Department material covers primarily American participation in interna-tional conferences on narcotics, the collaboration between the United States and the League on the problem, and correspondence with individual nations relative to the illicit traffic and the drug problem as a whole. A wide range of records was consulted, including especially index file 774 and decimal files 5oo.C1197, 5oo.C3, 5i1.4A1, 511.4.Az, 5 if.4.AzA, 511.4A5, 511 4A6, 511.4A6A, 51i.4Q1, 511.4R1, 511.4Ti, 800.114, 867.114, 891.114, and 893.114. Much of the conference material through the year 1914 is dupli-cated in Record Group 43, Entries 33 through 51, in the National Archives. The records of the Bureau of Insular Affairs constitute the best source on the opium situation in the Philippines.

The Brent Papers are valuable not only for showing the substantial in-fluence of Bishop Brent on the antidrug campaign but also for revealing the story behind the governmental correspondence and the official records of the international conferences. Other papers in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress which deal almost exclusively with the narcotics question are those of Ellen N. La Motte and Richmond Pearson Hobson. The former's consist mainly of the mimeographed minutes of the League of Nations Opium Advisory Committee. The latter's, which were of little value for this study, deal with the activities of the International Narcotic Education Association, the World Narcotic Defense Association, and the World Conference on Narcotic Education, all private organizations founded and headed by Hobson for the purpose of conducting an education and propaganda campaign again.st the misuse of drugs. Additional papers consulted but yielding little of value for this study were those of John Hay, Theodore Roosevelt, Elihu Root, William H. Taft, Philander C. Knox, Leonard Wood, and Admiral Mark Bristol.

Public Documents

Great Britain: Parliamentary Papers
Foreign Office. Correspondence Respecting the Cultivation of Opium in China. China No. (1921), Cmd. 1531. London: H.M. Stationery Of-fice, 1921.

Correspondence Respecting the Opium Question in China. China No. 0908), Cd. 3881. London: H.M. Stationery Office, i9o8.

Correspondence Respecting the Second International Conference, Held at the Hague, July, 913. Miscellaneous NO. 2 (1914), Cd. 7276. London: H.M. Stationery Office, i9z4.

Correspondence Respecting the Third International Opium Conference, Held at the Hague, June, r9r4. Miscellaneous No. 4 (1915), Cd. 78'3. London: H.M. Stationery Office, '915.

Instructions to the British Delegates to the International Opium Conference, Held at the Hague, December, 911—January, 1912. Miscellaneous No. 3 (1913), Cd. 66o5. London: H.M. Stationery Office, 19i3.

Report of the British Delegates to the International Opium Conference, Held at the Hague, December, 19ri—january, 19.12. Miscellaneous No.    (19u), Cd. 6448. London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1912.

Report of the British Delegation on the International Conferencesn on Opium and Dangerous Drugs, Held at Geneva, November, 1924, to February, 1925. Miscellaneous No. 8 (1925), Cmd. 2461. London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1927.

League of Nations

Advisory Committee on Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs. Minutes of the [First through the Twenty-fifth] Sessions. Geneva, 192I-1940-

Report to the Council Concerning the Preparatory Work for a Conference to Consider the Possibility of Limiting and Controlling the Cultivation of the Opium Poppy and the Production of Raw Opium and Controlling Other Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Opium Alkaloids, Drawn up by the Advisory Committee at Its Twenty-third Session (May—June, 938). C.221.M.123.1938, XI. Geneva, 1938.

Report to the Council Concerning the Preparatory Work for a Conference to Consider the Possibility of Limiting and Controlling the Cultivation of the Opium Poppy and the Production of Raw Opium and Controlling Other Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Opium Alkaloids, Drawn up by the Advisory Committee at Its Twenty-third Session (May—june, 1939). C.17 5.M.1o4.1939.X1. Geneva, '939.

Report to the Council on the Work of the Twelfth Session (January 77—February 2, 1929). C.33.1929.XI, OC.943 ( ). Geneva, '929.

Report to the Council on the Work of the Thirteenth Session. C.138.M.51.i93o. XI. Geneva, '93o.

Assembly. Fifth Committee. Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs. Report of the Fifth Committee to the Assembly. A.65.193I.V. Geneva, 1931•

Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs. Report of the Fifth Committee to the Assembly. A.86.1929.XL Geneva, 1929.

Commission of Enquiry into the Control of Opium-Smoking in the Far East. Report to the Council. V ol. I: Report with Comparative Tables, Maps and Illustrations. Vol.II: Detailed Memoranda on Each Territory Visited by the Commission. Vol. III: Collection of Laws and Regulations Governing the Control of Opium-Smoking in the Territories Visited by the Commission. C.63 5.M.254.193o.XI, Vols. I, II, III. Ge-neva, 193o.

Commission of Enquiry into the Production of Opium in Persia. Letter from the Chairman of the Commission. A.16.1927.XI. Geneva, 1927.

Observation of the Persian Government. A.8.1927.XI. Geneva, 1926.

Report to the Council. C.580.M.219.1926.XI. Geneva, 1926.

Conference on the Limitation of the Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs, Con-trol of Narcotic Drugs in Turkey, Memorandum Forwarded by the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the Turkish Republic. C.382.M.757. 793 i.VI. Geneva, 193i.

Conference on the Suppression of Opium Smoking Convened Under Ar-ticle XII of the Geneva Opium Agreement, 1925, Bangkok, November 9th-27th, 1931. Minutes of the Meetings and Documents Submitted to the Conf erence. C.577.M.284.1932.XI. Geneva, 1932.

First Opium Conference, Geneva, November 3rd, 7924—February nth, 1925, Minutes and Annexes. C.684.M.244.1924.XI. Geneva, i924.

Official Journal. February 1934.

Records of the Conference for the Limitation of the Manufacture of Nar-cotic Drugs, Geneva, May 27th to July 13th, 931 . V ol.I: Plenary Meet-ings, Text of the Debates. V ol. II: Meetings of the Committees and the Sub-Committee 072 C0711701. C.509.M.214.1931.XI. Geneva, 1931.

Records of the Conference for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dan-gerous Drugs (Geneva, June 8th to 26th, 1936). Text of the Debates. C.34.1.M.216.1936.XI. Geneva, z936.

Records of the Second Opium Conference, Geneva, November 17th, 7924— February 19th, 92 f. Vol. I: Plenary Meetings, Text of the Debates. Vol. II: Meetings of the Committees and Sub-Committees. C.76o.M.- 260.1924.XI. Geneva, 1925.

Report of the Opium Preparatory Committee. C.348.M.119.1924.XI. Ge-neva, '924.

Secretariat. Opium Section. Coca Leaf Questionnaire. C.641.M.3o3.1933.- XI. Geneva, 1933.

Raw Opium Questionnaire. C.64o.M.3oz.t933.XI. Geneva, 1933.

United States

Congressional Record. Vols. XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXV, XLIII, LI—LV, LVII, LVIII, LXV, LXVI, LXXII, LXXV.

Federal Narcotics Control Board. Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous

Drugs . . . Report by the Government of the United States of America, z 925126—i 929. Washington: Government Printing Office, 192 6— 193o.

House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs. Hearings on H.J. Res. 195. . The Traffic in Habit-Forming Narcotic Drugs. House Doc. 380. 68th Cong., 1st Sess., 1924. Washington: Government Print-ing Office, 1924.

Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. To Prohibit the Importation of Opium for Other than Medicinal Purposes . . . Report. H.R. 1878. 6oth Cong., 2nd Sess., Washington: Government Printing Office, 1909.

Committee on Ways and Means. Hearings . . . on H.R. 2524o, H.R. 25-24r, and H.R. 25242, Importation and Use of Opium. 6ist Cong., 2nd Sess., 19io. Washington: Government Printing Office, i9io.

Hearings . . . 072 H.R. 25240, H.R. 25241, H.R. 25242, and

H.R. 28911, Importation and Use of Opium. 6rst Cong., 3rd Sess., 191 1.

Subcommittee of the Committee on Ways and Means. Exportation of Opium, Hearings . . . on H.R. z 45oo, A Bill to Amend Section 6 of an Act Approved January 17, 1914, Entitled "An Act to Prohibit the Importation and Use of Opium for Other Than Medicinal Pur-poses," Approved February 9, r9o9. 66th Cong., 3rd Sess., 92o-192 1. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1921.

Traffic in, and Control of Narcotics, Barbiturates and Amphetamines. Hearings Before a Subcommittee of the Committee Oil Ways and Means. 84th Cong., 2nd Sess., 1955. Washington: Govern-ment Printing Office, 1956.

Lewis, Elmer A. (compiler). Opium and Narcotic Laws. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1955.

Malloy, William M., C. R. Redmond, and Edward J. Trenwith (com-pilers). Treaties, Conventions, International Acts, Protocols and Agree-ments Between the United States of America and Other Powers, 1776— z 937. 4 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1910-1938.

Miller, David Hunter (ed.). Treaties and Other International Acts of the United States of America. 7 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1931-494r.

Philippine Commission, Opium Investigation Committee. Use of Opium and Traffic Therein. Message from the President of the United States, Transmitting the Report of the Committee Appointed by the Philippine Commission to Investigate the Use of Opium and the Traffic Therein. . . . 59th Cong., ist Sess., Senate Doc. 265. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1906.

President's Commission on Enforcement and Administration of Justice, Task Force on Narcotics and Drug Abuse. Task Force Report: Nar-cotics and Drug Abuse. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967.

Senate, Committee on Finance. Exportation of Opium Hearings on S. 4553. A Bill to Amend Section 6 of an Act Approved January 17th, .1914,

Entitled "An Act to Prohibit the Importation and Use of Opium for Other Than Medicinal Purposes," Approved February 9, z 9o9. 66th Cong., 3rd Sess., 192o-192T. Washington: Government Printing Office, 192o-192i.

Manufacture of Smoking Opium. Report No. 13o. 63rd

Cong., ist Sess., 1913. Washington: Government Printing Office, 19 r 3.

Registration of Persons Dealing in Opium. Report No. 258. 63rd Cong., 2nd Sess., '914. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1914.

Committee on Foreign Relations. Sale of Poisons in Consular Districts of the United States in China. Report No. 1267. 62nd Cong., 3rd Sess., 1913. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1913.

Committee on the Judiciary. Communist China and Illicit Nar-cotic Traffic, Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. 84th Cong., 1st Sess., 1955. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1955.

Compilation of Treaties and Laws for the Protection of Native Races Against Intoxicants. Document No. 200. 56th Cong., 2nd Sess., i9o1.

Report of the Hearing at the American State Department on Petitions to the President to Use His Good Offices for the Release of China from Treaty Compulsion to Tolerate the Opium Traffic, with Addi-tional Papers. Document No. 135. 58th Cong., 3rd Sess., 1905.

Resolution, Adopted by the Senate January 4, z 9oz , Relative to the Protection of Uncivilized Peoples Against the Destructive Traffic in Intoxicants. Document No. 159. 56th Cong., 2nd Sess., r9oi.

State,Department of. Bulletin. Vol. LVI, 1967.

Conference on the Limitation of the Manufacture of Narcotic Drugs, Geneva, May 27—July z 3, z 93z. Report of the Delegation of the United States to the Secretary of State. Washington: Government Printing Office, '932.

The Opium Evil. Message from the President of the United States Transmitting Communication of the Secretary of State Covering the Report of the American Delegation to the International Opium Con-ference Held at the Hague from December z, z 9z z to January 23, z 9 z 2. Senate Doc. 733. 62nd Cong., 2nd Sess., 1912. Washington: Govern-ment Printing Office, 1912.

The Opium, Morphine and Other Drug Evils. Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, Transmitting Copy of a Communication from the Secretary of State Submitting an Estimate of Appropriations to Continue its Efforts to Mitigate the Opium, Morphine, and Other Allied Drug Evils. House Doc. Io43. 62nd Cong., 3rd Sess., 1912. Wash-ington: Government Printing Office, 1912.

The Opium Problem. Message from the President of the Unitedm States Transmitting . . . A Report on the International Opium Problem . . . Prepared by Mr. Hamilton Wright. . . . Senate Doc. 377. 6ist Cong., 2nd Sess., 191o. Washington: Government Printing Office, igio.

The Opium Traffic. Message from the President of the United States Transmitting Report of the Secretary of State Relative to the Control of the Opium Traffic. Senate Doc. 6 6
73— _1st Cong., 3rd Sess., 191i. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911.

Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1869,I; 1871; 1876; 188o; 1881; x883; 1887; 1906, I; 1918; 1919, Paris Peace Conf creme, IV , V , XI; 1923, I; 1929, I; 193 , I; 1932, I, General; 1933, IV, The Far East; 1938, IV, The Far East. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1869-1939.

Second International Opium Conference. Message from the President of the United States Transmitting a Communication from the Secretary of State, Accompanied by a Report Prepared by Hamilton Wright, on Behalf of the American Delegates to the Second Interna-tional Opium Conference, Which Met at the Hague . . . July [r--91, /9,3. . . . Senate Doc. 157. 63rd Cong., ist Sess., 1913. Washington: Government Printing Office, 19 z 3.

Treasury, Department of, Bureau of Narcotics. Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs . . . Report by the Government of the United States of America. Washington: Government Printing Office, 193i.

Special Narcotic Committee. Traffic in Narcotic Drugs Report of Special Committee of Investigation Appointed March 25, 1978 by the Secretary of the Treasury, June, 1919. Washington: Government Print-ing Office, 1919.

Miscellaneous

Conference on the Limitation of the Manufacture of Dangerous Drugs. Preliminary Meeting of Manufacturing Countries, London, October, 193o, Verbatim Report. M. C. (Lond.) PV. 1-2o. London, 193o. Mim-eographed.)

Hawaiian Islands, Legislature, Special Committee on Opium. Report of Special Committee on Opium to the Legislature of 1892, Acting Under Resolution of Honorable J. H. Waipulani. Honolulu, 1892.

Hudson, Manley O. (ed.). International Legislation: A Collection of the Texts of Multipartite Instruments of General Interest, Vol. III. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1931.

International Opium Conference, The Hague, December 1st, 1911—January 23rd, T9I2. Summary of the Minutes (Unofficial). The Hague: Na-tional Printing Office, 1912.

MacMurray, John V. A. (compiler and editor). Treaties and Agreements With and Concerning China, z894--19z 9. 2 vols. New York: Oxford University Press, 192x.

Report of the International Opium Commission, Shanghai, China, February to February 26, 19°9. Vol.1: Report of the Proceedings. Vol.11: Report of the Delegations. Shanghai: North China Daily News and Herald, Ltd., 19°9.

Second International Opium Conference. The Hague, 1-9 July 1913. Sum-mary of the Minutes (Unofficial). The Hague: National Printing Office, 1913.

United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Narcotic Drugs. Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs, Review of World Traffic from January z .94o to 30 .11172e 1 946. E/CN.7/68. New York, 1947.

Office of Public Information. International Control of Narcotic Drugs. 65-18122-15M-October, 1965. New York, 1965.

United Nations Opium Conference, Summary Record. E/Conf.; 14/SR. 1-'1,1953. New York, 1953.

United Nations Review, Vols. VIII and IX, 1961-62.

Books

Anslinger, Harry, and Will Oursler. The Murderers: The Story of the Nar-cotic Gangs. New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1961.

Anslinger, Harry, and William F. Tompkins. The Traffic in Narcotics. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, i953.

Anti-Opium League. The Greater Y ear of Anti-Opium: Annual Report of the Anti-Opium League. . . . Shanghai: North Chinese Daily News and Herald, Ltd., 1909.

Bemis, Samuel Flagg. A Diplomatic History of the United States. 3rd ed. revised. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 195o.

Berdahl, Clarence A. The Policy of the United States -with Respect to the League of Nations. Graduate Institute of International Studies. Geneva: Libraire Kundig, 1932.

Bishop, Ernest S. The Narcotic Drug Problem. New York: The Mac-millan Co., 1920.

Bland, John O. P. Li Hung Chang. London: Constable and Company, Ltd., 1917.

Buel, Raymond L. The International Opium Conferences, with Relevant Documents. World Peace Foundation Pamphlets, VIII, Nos. 2-3. Bos-ton: World Peace Foundation, 1925.

Cameron, Meribeth E. The Reform Movement in China, 1898-49i 2. Stan-ford University, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 193i.

Campbell, Charles S. Special Business Interests and the Open Door Policy. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1951.

Chahkar, Mohammed. Le Problème de l'opium en Iran. Paris: Libraire Orientale et Américaine, G. P. Maisonneuve, 1936.

China Centenary Missionary Conference Records. Report of the Great Conference Held at Shanghai, April 5th to May 8, z 9o7. New York: American Tract Society, 19°7.

Claude, Inis L., Jr. Swords into Plowshares: The Problems and Progress of International Organization. New York: Random House, 1956.

Crafts, Wilbur Fisk. A Primer of Internationalism with Special Reference to University Debates. 2nd ed. revised. Washington, D.C.: International Reform Bureau, 19o8.

Crafts, Wilbur F., Mrs. Wilbur F. Crafts, Mary and Margaret Leitch.

Intoxicants and Opium in All Lands and Times: A Twentieth Century Survey of Intemperance Based on a Symposium of Testimony from One Hundred Missionaries and Travelers. oth ed. revised. Washington, D.C.: The International Reform Bureau, 19°4.

Intoxicating Drinks and Drugs in All Lands and Times: A Twentieth Century Survey of Intemperance,Based on a Symposium of Testi-mony from One Hundred Missionaries and Travelers. loth ed. revised. Washington, D.C.: The International Reform Bureau, 19o9.

Dennett, Tyler. Americans in Eastern Asia: A Critical Study of the Policy of the United States with Reference to China, japan and Korea in the 19th Century. New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1941.

Dennis, James S. Christian Missions and Social Progress: A Sociological Study of Foreign Missions. 3 vols. New York: Fleming H. Revell Co., 898-19°6.

Dulles, Foster Rhea. China and America: The Story of Their Relations Since z784. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1946.

Dunn, Wie Tsain. The Opium Traffic in Its International Aspects:. New York: Columbia University Press, 192o.

Eisenlohr, Louise E. S. International Narcotics Control. London: George Allen Unwin, Ltd., I 934.

Eldridge, William B. Narcotics and the Law: A Critique of the American Experiment in Narcotic Drug Control. New York: American Bar Foun-dadon, x962.

Fleming, Denna Frank. The United States and World Organization, I 920- 1933. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938.

Foreign Policy Association, Committee on Traffic in Opium. International Control of the Traffic in Opium: Summary of the Opium Conferences Held at Geneva, November, 1924, to February, z 925. Pamphlet No. 33, series of '924-1925. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1925.

Gavit, John P. Opium. London: G. Routledge and Sons, Ltd., 1925.

International Anti-Opium Association. The War Against Opium. Tientsin: Tientsin Press, Ltd., 1922.

International Reform Bureau. Patriotic Studies. Washington, D.C.: Inter-national Reform Bureau, t9o5.

Kolb, Lawrence, and A. G. Du Mez. The Prevalence and Trends of Drug Addiction in the United States and the Factors Influencing It. Treasury Department, U.S. Public Health Service. Washington, D.C.: Govern-ment Printing Office, x 924.

La Motte, Ellen N. The Opium Monopoly. New York: The Macmillan Co., 192o.

Latourette, Kenneth S. A History of Christian Missions in China. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1929.

The History of Early Relations Between the United States and

China, 7784-1844. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, '917. Lindesmith, Alfred R. The Addict and the Law. Bloomington, Ind.: In-diana University Press, 1965.

MacCallum, Elizabeth. Twenty Y ears of Persian Opium ( 9o8-1928). New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1928.

MacHair, Harley F., and Donald F. Lach. Modern Far Eastern International Relations. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., 1925.

Malone, Dumas (ed.). Dictionary of American Biography . V ols. XVIII—XX. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1935-1936.

May, Herbert L. Survey of Smoking Opium Conditions in the Far East: A Report to the Executive Board of the Foreign Policy Association (March, 1927). New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1927.

Merrill, Frederick T. Japan and the Opium Menace. New York: Interna-tional Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations and the Foreign Policy Association, 942.

Millspaugh, Arthur C. Americans in Persia. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1946.

The Arnerican Task in Persia. New York and London: Century Co., 192.5.

Moore, John Bassett. The Collected Papers of John Bassett Moore. 7 vols. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1944.

Morse, H. M., and J. F. MacNair. F ar Eastern International Relations. New Y9rk: Houghton Mifflin Company, 193 1.

Mudhall, Sara G. Opium, The Demon Flower. New York: Montrose Pub-lishing Co., T 928.

National Library of Medicine, Reference Division. Narcotic Addiction: A Selected List of References in English. Pamphlet in Library of Congress, July 1959.

Neligan, A. R. The Opium Question, with Special Reference to Persia. London: John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, Ltd., 1927.

Owen, David E. British Opium Policy in China and India. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1934.

Reinsch, Paul S. An American Diplomat in China. New York: Doubleday, Page and Company, 192.z.

Renborg, Bertil A. International Drug Control: A Study of International Administration By and Through the League of Nations. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1947.

Schur, Edwin M. Narcotic Addiction in Britain and America: The Impact of Public Policy. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 1962.

Solomon, David (ed.). The Marihuana Papers. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966.

Stelle, Charles C. American Trade in Opium to China in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Libraries, 1941.

Varg, Paul A. Missionaries, Chinese , and Diplomats: The American Protestant Missionary Movement in China, 189o—z 952. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1958.

Willoughby, Westel W. Opium as an International Problem: The Geneva Conferences. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1925.

Wu, Wen-tsao. The Chinese Opium Question in British Opinion and Ac-tion. New York: Academy Press, 1928.

Zabriskie, Alexander C. Bishop Brent: Crusader for Christian Unity. Phila-delphia: Westminster Press, 1948.

Articles and periodicals

American Journal of International Law. Supplement, III ( July, Oct., 1909), 253-275,328-336.

Ansley, Norman. "International Efforts to Control Narcotics," journal of Criminztl Law, Criminology and Police Science, I ( July, Aug., 1959),
io5-112.

Baldwin, Elbert F. "The Background of the Opium Conference at the Hague," American Review of Reviews, XLV (Feb., '912), 214-218. Bent, Silas. "American Beer in China," Asia, XIX ( June, 1919), 597-598. Berdahl, Clarence A. "The Relations of the United States with the Assembly of the League of Nations," American Political Science Review,
XXVI (Feb., 1932), 99-112.

Chiles, Rosa P. "The Passing of the Opium Traffic," The Forum, XLVI (July, i9I 1), 22-39. "A Chinese Charge Against Japan," Literary Digest, LXI (April I2,;919), 20.

Collins, William J. "Work of the International Opium Conference at the Hague," Contemporary Review, CI (March, 191 2), 317-3 27.

"A Conference of Poisons," The Outlook, XCII ( June 26,1909), 422,43o.

Cox, Robert W. "The Suppression of Illicit Narcotic Drug Traffic Through International Cooperation," Notre Dame Lawyer, XXXVII, No. 0960, lo6--116.

Dewey, John. "Our Share in Drugging China," New Republic, XXI (December 24,1919), 114-117.

Drexel, Constance. "Are We Our Brothers' Keepers? How Our Country is Fighting the Drug Evil," Harper's Magazine, CXLIX (Nov., 1924), 740.
"The Fight Against Opium," The Nation, LXXXIX ( July 29,19°9), 92— 93-
"Great Britain, America and the China Opium Problem," Millard's Review of the Far East, XII (April 17,192o), 320.

Hodges, Charles. "Legal Aspects of the Far Eastern Drug Trade," Far Eastern Fortnightly (Aug. 2,192o), 1-6.

Hubbard, Ursula P. "The Cooperation of the United States with the League of Nations, 1931-1936," International Conciliation, No. 329 (April, 1937)-348

"The International Opium Commission," Missionary Reviev., of the World, XXII (May, 19°9), 323.

La Motte, Ellen. "The Americans Wouldn't Compromise," The Nation, CXX (May 6,1925), 511-512.

"Limiting Drug Manufacture," The Nation, CXXXIV (April 13, 1932), 418-419.

Lee, Paul. "Drug Addiction in America and China," Zion's Herald (Feb. 15, 1922), 202-203.

MacFarlane, Peter C. "The White Hope of Drug Victims: An Everyday American Fighter," Colliers Magazine, LII (Nov. 29,1913), 16-17, 29-30.

Masland, John W. "Missionary Influence upon American Far Eastern Policy," Pacific Historical Review, X (Sept., 1941), 279-2.96. Mathews, Shailer. "Shall We Make the Chinese Drunkards?" The Independent, CIV (Nov. 6, 192o), 186.

Merrill, Frederick T. "The Opium Menace in the Far East," F oreign Policy Reports, XII (March 1,1937), 294-304.

Moorhead, Helen H. "International Narcotics Control: 1939-1946," Foreign Policy Reports, XXII (July 1,1946), 94-103.

"Iran's Opium Policy," Foreign Policy Reports, XXI (May 1, 1945)9 40.

"The Opium Problem and the League of Nations: An Address. . . Before the Democratic Women's Luncheon Club, Philadelphia, April 27, 1925," Addresses 1-48, No. 22, Philadelphia: Democratic Women's Luncheon Club, 1922-193o.

"Opium," The Outlook, CVIII (Dec. 23, z 914), 896-897.

"Opium Traffic in the Philippines," The Outlook, LXXIV (June 2o, 19°3), 449-441; (July 25, 1903), 731-732.

"Opium, War on the Traffic," Missionary Review of the World, XXVI (Aug., 1903), 62o.

"Poisoning the Chinese," Literary Digest, LXVIII (Feb. 26,1921), 3o. "Shall the Opium Traffic Be Revived in China?" American Review of Re-views, LVIII (Dec., 1918), 658.

Starks, J. G. "The Convention of 1936 for the Suppression of the Illicit Traffic in Dangerous Drugs," American Journal of International Law, XXXI (Jan., 1937), 31-43.

Stelle, Charles C. "American Trade in Opium to China, i821-1839," Pacific Historical Review, X (March, 1941), 57-74.

Stelzle, Charles. "Uprooted in the United States the Brewery Interests Turn to China," World Outlook, V (Nov., 1919), 16-17.

Wilder, Amos P. "The Danger of Strong Drink in China," Missionary Re-view of the World, XLII, (July, 1919), 53o-53i.

Wright, Elizabeth Washburn. "The Injustice to China," The Outlook, CXXII (Aug. 2o, 1919), 6o 1-6o2.

. "The Passing of the Opium Question," The Outlook, CVI (Feb. 14,1914), 365-368.

Wright, Hamilton. "The End of the Opium Question," American Review of Reviews, LI (April, 1915), 464-466.

. "The International Opium Commission," American Journal of International Law, 111 ( July, 1909), 649-673; (Oct., 19o9), 828-868.

. "A Recent Deployment of the Latin Americas in Support of a Diplomatic and Humanitarian Policy Initiated by the American Gov-ernment," American Journal of International Law, X ( Jan., 1916),126-13o.

."Report on the Opium Conference at Shanghai," Proceedings of the American Society of International Law (April, 19°9), pp. 89-94. Wright, Quincy. "The Opium Conferences," American Journal of Inter-national LaW, XIX (July, 1925), 348-355.

Newspapers

New York American, Feb. 16, 1925.

New York Herald Tribune, Oct. 24, 1929.

New York Times, Jan. 19, 23, Feb. 7, 8, 9, 12, 21, Sept. 25, 1925; Feb. 12, 1928; July 9, To, 1 1, 12, 1933; Feb. 14, 1952.

Unpublished material

Fernitz, Henrietta Harriet. "American Participation in International Nar-cotic Drug Control." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1943. ,,
Stelle, Charles C. "Americans and the China Opium Trade in the Nineteenth Century." Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Chicago, 1938.
U. S. Library of Congress. "List of References on the Drug Habit and Traffic." Mimeographed pamphlet in Library of Congress, May 1, 1926.
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