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CHAPTER VII TRADE AND MOVEMENT OF THE HEMP DRUGS PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Thursday, 24 December 2009 00:00

CHAPTER VII. TRADE AND MOVEMENT OF THE HEMP DRUGS.

278. The area cultivated in the Ganja Mahal in the year 1892-93 was much greater than in any one of the preceding 19 years, being 3,540 bighas (Excise Commissioner's Memorandum), equivalent to 1,18o acres. But the estimated outturn of the crop was comparatively small, being only 7,575 maunds, and not much above the average of the five years from 1888-89 to 1892.93, 7,317 maunds (Excise Report for 1892-93, page 36). For the purpose of examining the movements of the produce, therefore, 1892.93 is a fair average year.

None of these figures is in a very striking degree abnormal. The exports to Assam and Kuch Behar are taken direct from the head-quarters at Naogaon, and the rest apparently from the local stores most convenient to the trade. The balance left for home consumption is 5,573 maunds, which approximates to the annual consumption. One of the most noticeable points in the information relating to export's is the extraordinary shipment of 774 maunds in the year 1891-92 to other parts than those for which the Commission asked for information by name in the statement. This export was ten times the ordinary quantity, and no explanation is furnished about it.
280. The history of the export trade to the North-Western Provinces is
Exports of ganja to North-
also remarkable. It is sketched at page 38 of the Western Provinces. Excise Report for 1892-93. It is there stated that the ganja trade of Rajshahi with the North-Western Provinces dates from the very earliest period of the cultivation, and that the export was very large till the year 186o, when the rate of duty was first increased. " The order requiring payment of duty at Rajshahi may be said to have killed the trade of that district with the North-Western Provinces. The exports which in 1854-55 amounted to 6,036 maunds, and to 4,25o maunds in 86 1-6 2 , fell in the following year to 1,014 maunds, to 43 maunds in 1863-64, and ceased altogether in 186970." The North-Western Provinces traders have since imported a certain amount of garija from the golas of the Patna Division, and it is probable that by this arrangement they save in carriage something more than the difference between the Lost of the drug at the central and local golas. Their average total purchases for the last three years, viz., 565 maunds, are, however, very far below the quantity they used to buy in Rajshahi, and it is clear that the North-Western Provinces have found other sources of supply to meet their wants.

281. A certain amount of ganja is imported under license from the Tributary States of Orissa, but the Commissioner of Excise reports that the quantity is not large, as little advantage has yet been taken of the rules passed in March 1892 to legalize the import. For the previous decade the importation had been entirely forbidden under orders of the 21st June 1882. Smuggling from the States is, however, carried on on a considerable scale. This and a small amount of illicit import over the Nepal frontier are practically the only sources of the ganja supply of the province besides the produce of the Ganja Mahal and such material for smoking as the wild growth and illicit cultivation provide. It may be noted that in the year 1878-79 a small amount of ganja was imported from Bombay and the Central Provinces. The experiment has not been repeated.

282. The Excise Commissioner reports that bhang is not as a rule imported from any other province, and no figures are furnished. But the Excise Commissioner, North-Western Provinces, states that a certain amount does pass from his province into Bengal, and there is general corroboration of this statement in the evidence. Charas is imported from the Punjab. Formerly, it seems Nepal charas was generally consumed, but it never could have been largely imported, for the total import for the year 188o-81 was less than half a maund. The trade in charas seems now to be steadily growing. A duty of Rs. 8 a ser has been levied on the drug since 188o, and the import is now III maunds.

283. The Kuch Behar State imported 89 maunds of ganja in the year 1892-93. Though somewhat higher than that of the three preceding years, the figure is not abnormal. It exports none of the hemp drugs, and none are licitly produced.

284. Though the Bengal Government has passed regulations under which the drugs can be exported from the Garhjat States, and though there is considerable demand for them, there is practically no licit trade. The illegal traffic is considerable, but its volume cannot be estimated. Within the States the consumers appear to grow their own drugs, and there is no organised trade.

285. There is no trade worth mention in the Chota Nagpur States. All the States probably import ganja to a certain extent, for cultivation has been more or less restricted in all of them ; but there is definite information to this effect from Seraikela and Kharsawan alone. The former State has furnished statistics in the form prescribed by the Commission showing an import of I maunds of ganja. It is nevertheless probable that many consumers grow their own drugs. There are no exports of the drugs except perhaps in the shape of very petty smuggling.

286. There is no trade in the drugs in Hill Tippera. An insignificant amount is imported for consumption, and there is some petty smuggling into British territory towards Bengal and Assam.
287. Assam draws its ganja supply from Rajshahi. The figures of import are given from 1879-8o to 1892-93. The average import of the first four years of this period was 644 maunds, of the next five years 677 maunds, and of the last five years 75o maunds. The trade therefore is growing, and the increase is doubtless connected with the development of the tea industry in Assam and the influx of coolies attending it. The drug is not exported. There is reason to suppose that the consumption of licit ganja, and therefore the import trade, is affected by the smuggling of inferior ganja from the hill countries and by the existence in the valleys of the wild growth in considerable abundance ; but it is not possible to form any estimate of the extent of this interference with the legitimate business. Charas is not consumed. Licenses are not issued for the import of bhang probably because there is no demand for Bengal bhang, the local weed being far more than sufficient for the needs of the province. Nor is there any local trade in bhang. Practically bhang is not recognized as a distinct article from ganja. There is very little information about its use.

288. The province produces for itself a large amount of bhang and a very small amount of ganja and charas. A considerable quantity of bhang is nevertheless imported, and practically the whole of the ganja and charas consumed are from outside the province. All three drugs also pass out of the province, but ganja and charas only to a small extent.

289. Mr. Stoker writes that the three main localities from which ganja is imported are Bengal, Khandwa, and Central India, i.e.,
(a) Gwalior, and (b) Bundelkhand Native States. The Bengal Excise Report for 1892-93 shows that the export from Bengal to the North-Western Provinces in the last three years has been or more than double the quantity which is drawn from Bengal and Khandwa.


The Bengal drug, baluchar, is universally admitted to be of superior quality. Mr. Stoker writes : " The appearance would indicate that it contains more of the resinous secretion ; but, so far as I know, it seems to be preferred on account of its flavour and less unpleasant after effects." It was exported to the North-Western Provinces in 1854-55 to the amount of 6,036 maunds, and in 186i -62 of 4,250 maunds, and then the export rapidly decreased to the present average on account of the heavy duty imposed by the Bengal Government. These figures appear to show that the North-Western Provinces formerly drew its whole supply of ganja, or nearly all, from Bengal, and that the imports of ganja given in the statistical return are not in excess of the annual supply which the province requires. It is advisable to draw attention to these figures because Mr. Stoker cautions the Commission against placing too much reliance on his statistics.

290. Taking the average import then at 4,774 maunds—Mr. Stoker estimates it at 4,000 to 4,500 maunds—it must be concluded that 2,719 maunds, or the greater part of it, are imported from Gwalior and the Bundelkhand States. The Bundelkhand States named by Mr. Stoker are Dattia, Sampthar, Chatarpur, and Kadaura (Baoni), to which he would add Dholpur in the Bhartpur Agency. He is not sure that all the ganja brought from these States is of local growth. Some of it, he suspects, comes from Gwalior or Khandwa originally. From other sources it is ascertained that Dholpur does not grow any ganja. Regarding the volume of the import for the Bundelkhand States, Mr. Stoker writes that it is inconsiderable and irregular. Gwalior must therefore be the locality from which nearly the whole of the balance of import now under consideration is derived. And in this view it becomes the most considerable source of the ganja supply of the province, larger than Khandwa, and far larger than Bengal. It is reported that a little ganja still comes from Indore. It is to be noted that in certain years the Khandwa imports have been uncommonly large. In 1883-84 they were 2,472 maunds, in 1885-86 4,223 maunds, and in 1889-90 3,237 maunds. These figures, of course, raise the importance of Khandwa as compared with Gwalior, but still they do not affect the conclusion that the latter provides the greater amount of ganja to the North-Western Provinces at the present day. Mr. Stoker thinks Gwalior ganja is gaining ground, and that it has been favoured by the construction of the Indian Midland Railway.

291. As regards quality, Mr. Stoker's information places Gwalior ganja on the same footing as the pathar of Khandwa, and it is known by the same name. Both these drugs are far cheaper than that of Bengal with its high duty, and this appears to be a sufficient reason for their having superseded it. In the retail trade pathar sells at 1 annas, while baluchar sells at 6 annas the tola. There is reason to believe that pathar is frequently passed off as the better quality of drug, and is used also for adulterating it. The form in which the drug is sold in the shops, the smokable part being picked off the stems, renders such practices possible. The two articles are readily distinguishable on the branch. Mr. Stoker has some interesting remarks on attempts which have been made, apparently with more or less success, to get the cultivators of Nimar to turn out their drug so as to resemble baluchar. The latter is consumed principally in the districts of the Gorakhpur and Benares Divisions, but a little of it still finds its way further west, where its superior quality secures for it a certain, though small, demand in spite of its much higher price. The name pathar, pathiyara, or pathiyala may possibly be derived, Mr. Stoker thinks, from the leafy character of the inferior drug.

292. It is mentioned that within the last ten years ganja has been imported from Holkar's Territory, Berar, Mewar, Nasik, Nasirabad, and Khandesh, and perhaps other places in the Bombay Presidency ; but latterly " the proximity of Khandwa and Gwalior, and the cheapness of the drug there, seem to have given them a monopoly of the business in pathar." The smuggling of inferior ganja from over the Nepal frontier is too insignificant to interfere with the trade. The registered exports are not considerable ; some imported ganja goes from Bahraich into Nepal.

293. The charas used in the North-Western Provinces is almost wholly the produce of Yarkand and Bokhara obtained through the Punjab. Nepal also supplies from 25 to 5o maunds. The total import is given as 2,251 maunds. This is far in excess of any previous record, but Mr. Stoker advises caution against placing too great reliance on these statistics, and states that he has only recently established a system of registration which can be expected to give at all accurate results. The figure is probably unduly enhanced by the partial registration of transports within the province. In such registration the district exports must have failed to appear, for the total export of the year is only given at 45 maunds. In the correspondence of 1881 the Board of Revenue estimated the consumption at only I,000 maunds, and it cannot he supposed that it has doubled since that time. Mr. Stoker's estimate of the imports, viz., t, too or 1,200 maunds, may be adopted. Some interesting information is furnished in a letter of the British Joint Commissioner of Ladakh which appears in the correspondence of 1881. That officer states that the charas which comes into India by the Ladakh road is produced in Eastern Turkestan, viz., Yarkand, Yengi Hissar, Kashgar, Khotan, etc. This is regarded as inferior to the charas of Bokhara, which is carried through Kabul to Peshawar, and through Kandahar (in ordinary times) to Shikarpur in Sind. The charas of Yengi Hissar, which is the best of the kinds produced in Eastern Turkestan, is frequently sent through Khokand to Bokhara, and thence imported with Bokhara charas, and sold under that name. The great bulk of the charas sent through Ladakh to India is consigned to Amritsar. ' Amritsar is the chief depot of charas, and the North-Western Provinces supply would seem to be drawn from that place. The traders have informed Mr. Stoker that the drug is much less pure than it used to be some years ago, and also much cheaper. The Shdhjahani or Saljandni charas from Nepal is of very superior quality, and commands as high a price as Rs. to a ser. It seems all to go to Lucknow, where it is retailed at Rs. 35 to Rs. 40 per ser. The import has fallen off in late years in consequence of Yarkand charas having become cheaper, but its superior quality still secures a market for it.

294. Charas is manufactured to the extent of about 5o maunds in the mountains of Kumaon and Garhwal from the crops cultivated for fibre. It is for the most part consumed locally, but 5 or 6 maunds pass annually into the hands of the contractors. It would appear that a small amount is exported to Tibet. This district also receives small imports from Tibet and Nepal. It is said that the people prefer Yarkand charas to their own, and Mr. Stoker cannot understand in what, except cheapness, the superiority of the latter can consist, for the home produce must be far the purer of the two. Some charas is prepared from the wild growth, but it is doubtful if it enters the market. It may, however, affect the trade by satisfying the wants of a certain class of consumers. There is still another source of charas in the province, though it is not yet drawn upon except by the hillmen who come down to cultivate in the Kumaon Terai and the Bhabar. The wild growth of this region is made to yield the drug of which Mr. Stoker had succeeded in getting a specimen. The quantity made and used is quite insignificant, and does not appear to find its way into the market ; but the possibility of preparing the drug from the wild growth of the low country is interesting.

295. The export of charas is only 45 maunds. It probably passes into Bengal and the Native States on the southern frontier; but there is no definite information. The figure may not mean exports from the province, but it is reasonable to expect that there should be a little trade in the directions indicated.

296. The imports and exports of bhang are given as 1,644 and 1,263 maunds respectively. It may be doubted if these figures have any value at all as representing the volume of trade over the frontiers of the province. The mass of the bhang trade of course circulates within the province, and consists in providing the locally grown drug to local consumers. Regarding the external trade, Mr. Stoker writes : " A certain amount is imported from the Punjab, coming chiefly from Jagadhri, Kalsia, and Umballa, and some from Amritsar and Hoshiarpur. Nearly all of it goes to a few of our western districts. This is not because of any failure in the local supply, which is unlimited and inexhaustible, nor because of any superiority of the Punjab article, but apparently on account of the trade connection of some of the contractors with the Punjab......   A little bhang also comes from Bhartpur and Jeypore, and perhaps from a few Bundelkhand Native States ; but in that direction we give more than we get. The amount is not considerable, and seems to be diminishing. Some of the bhang from Gonda and Bahraich is  really grown on the Nepal side of the border    A certain amount of bhang finds its way out of the provinces to the neighbouring districts of Bengal, the Punjab, the Central Provinces, and the Bundelkhand States." It appears that the contractors often buy the plant from the owners or occupiers of land who have collected and stored it. The purchase money would seem to include a price for the drug itself as well as payment of the expenses connected with collecting and storing it.

297. There is no separate information regarding the trade arrangements of the Rampur State. They form part of the general trade of the province. The amount of the State's imports and exports cannot appreciably affect the course of the latter.

298. The same remarks apply to the Hill State of Tehri Garhwal, with the addition of the definite information that none of the products of the hemp cultivation carried on in the State passes over its frontiers into British territory.

299. The comparatively unimportant subject of the bhang trade may be disposed of in a few words. The mass of the bhang consumed is collected within the province mostly from the wild growth. There is a considerable import from over the Kashmir frontier which, the Excise Commissioner remarks, may be regarded as local production, for the plant is collected at no great distance from the border. There is a small import from the direction of Kabul also. It has been seen that a certain quantity of bhang passes out into the North-Western Provinces. It is probable that the bhang produced from cultivation is mostly consumed at home, and that very little of it, if any, passes on to the market. The amount shown as sold by retail vendors approaches 4,000 maunds.

300. Nearly the whole of the charas supply of India comes through the Punjab. The Excise Commissioner estimates that in 1892-93 the total import amounted to 5,000 maunds ; that this was an exceptional year, and that in ordinary years it is between 3,000 and 4,0oo maunds. When examining the trade of the North-Western Provinces, information was quoted from the Joint Commissioner, Ladakh, about the kinds of charas which pass under the names of Bokhara and Yarkand, and the routes by which the .two articles are imported into India. The Joint Commissioner, in this case Captain Ramsay, reported to the Financial Commissioner, Punjab, in August 1888, on the subject of the charas trade. In this report he writes : " Charas is produced chiefly in the vicinity of Yarkand. It grows at Bokhara and other places in Turkestan, but I have been informed that the Russians have prohibited its cultivation within their dominions, and that supplies of the drug are now obtained almost entirely from Yarkand territory. The finest charas does not find its way into Ladakh, but is exported to Bokhara and other places." He proceeds to give some interesting details of the trade : " The reported value of the charas is fictitious for this reason that the Yarkandis bring their charas to Leh, and there meet Indian traders who take their charas in exchange for piece goods and other Indian articles. Each party over-values his goods, hence the reputed value of both charas and piece-goods, etc., is from to to zo per cent. in excess of the real value." He then shows that the trade has a strong spice of gambling about it : " It will be observed that the fluctuations in the price of charas are very great, and this fact has led two of my predecessors and myself to express opinions hostile to the fostering of this particular branch of our Central Asian trade on the ground that all charas dealings partake rather of the nature of a gambling transaction than of legitimate trade. The price fixed for charas at Leh is almost entirely speculative. The charas is intended for sale in the Punjab, but none but license-holders are permitted to sell charas there ; the consequence is that when merchants take their charas to the Punjab, they are obliged to sell it for such price as the license-holders will pay. The charas cannot be kept in India, as it goes bad after a year, and it cannot be taken back on account of the cost of transport. The down 'country license-holder is therefore in a position to fix the price of the drug. Nevertheless large profits are sometimes made on charas taken down for sale, and thus the trade continues to thrive." These remarks appear to be just, though it may not be correct to say that charas goes bad in quite so short a time as one year. The charas having arrived at Leh, and having apparently passed into the hands of Indian traders, is taken to the Punjab by two routes, yid Kashmir and vid Kulu.
The ganja, Bard bhang, or chura charas manufactured in Kashmir is all consumed locally ; none is exported to the Punjab (Kashmir Governor's Memorandum). The Kashmir authorities take precautions to see that the Yarkand charas passes through with bulk unbroken, and they levy duty on any that may be sold in Srinagar. The import by this route may be roughly stated at Soo maunds. Six or seven times as much is imported direct through Kulu to Hoshiarpur, and during the last three years the amount has grown considerably. The figures for the last three years are-


The figures quoted by the Excise Commissioner from the Provincial Reports of external trade show that the Kabul route is also used for the import of charas, but no imports were apparently registered in 189o-91 and 1891-92. In discussing the value of these figures, the Excise Commissioner remarks that no drug is shewn as coming across the western frontier (from Sewestan) or the northwestern (from Bajaur) except that from Kabul, while there is undoubtedly a certain amount of import trade with the Derajat and Hazara. This implies that to the west of the Kashmir route there are several roads from Hazara round to the Sind frontier by which charas enters the Punjab.
The figures of import and export given in the form prescribed by the Commission are obviously incorrect ; the same drug must frequently have been registered more than once. The estimated import is 5,000 maunds. The registered consumption as shown in the statistical tables is 1,020 and 1,026 maunds for 1892-93 and 1891-92 respectively. But the figures seem to be merely the differences between the imports and exports, and cannot be otherwise verified. It would hardly be an excessive estimate to put the amount consumed in the province at 1,200 maunds. This leaves 3,800 maunds for export, of which, according to Mr. Stoker, the North-Western Provinces would take another 1,200 maunds. The balance, 2,600 maunds, must go in waste, and be exported to the rest of India. It must be remembered that the imports of charas in 1892-93 were exceptionally high, being r,000 or 11500 maunds above the normal. With this allowance the consumption by India outside the two northern provinces seems to come within limits which accord with the general information regarding the habits of the people. A not insignificant share must be taken by the Native States of the Punjab, where the charas habit is as prevalent as among the population of the British portion of the province.

301. The following morsels of information regarding the Native States under the Punjab Government have been furnished. The State of Nabha prohibits the sale of ganja and charas, and only allows the sale of bhang for medicinal purposes. Faridkot imported in the last year 40 maunds of bhang and I2 maunds of charas. Jhind has imported on the average of two years 105 maunds of bhang and 52 maunds of charas from Umballa and Hoshiarpur. Chamba reports that it imports the hemp drug from Hoshiarpur and Amritsar, and that the average consumption of the whole year is about 8 maunds. There is a small import of Yarkand charas through Bashahr. The distribution of the hemp drugs to the States would seem to be a subordinate incident of the Punjab trade.

302. The Central Provinces grow their own ganja, consume no charas, and import a trifling amount of bhang.

303. Mr. Drake-Brockman gives 16 maunds as the average outturn of an acre of ganja cultivation (Memorandum on Cultivation).
Mr. Robertson puts it at 12 to 15 maunds (Memorandum on Cultivation). These estimates must take account of a great deal of material that does not find its way on to the books of the Khandwa depot. For paragraph 54 of the Excise Memorandum gives figures which would put the outturn at hardly to maunds. The quantity of ganja brought to store and the quantity exported since 1888-89 are given in that paragraph as follows :—

Mr. Drake-Brockman writes that only one-fifth of the crop is locally consumed, but this statement does not take account of waste. The average recorded consumption, including that of the Feudatory States, is shown to be 1,282 maunds. The column headed " difference " represents this provincial consumption, together with waste in cleaning, principally the drug consumed in the province, but also to a less degree that which is exported.

304. Of this export the North-Western Provinces take about 1,500 maunds, and the destination of the rest is indicated in a report of the Excise Commissioner of the year 1887 quoted at paragraph 41 of his memorandum : " The part played by the Khandwa store as an entrepat for the supply of the ganja demand of these provinces is quite insignificant when compared with its use as a mart for the convenience of foreign purchasers. To it throng traders from Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior, Rutlam, Dhar, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Rewa, Parma, Baroda, and other States of less note, and licensed vendors from the North-Western Provinces compete with contractors from Berar for the purchase of the cultivator's stock." At that time the Commissioner of Excise states that the export was between 6,000 and 7,00o maunds. In making this calculation, he includes the figure of the year 1885-86, which reached the exceptional amount of 13,380 maunds.
There is reason to suppose that a little business is done in the sale of seed from the crops grown at Khandwa for that product. There is information as to its being used by the hemp cultivators of Hyderabad, the Berars, Bombay, and Indore. There is some smuggling of ganja from the Native States on the borders of the province, but it does not seem to be considerable enough to materially affect the licensed trade. Bhang is imported from Central India to the extent of about 1 o maunds for the use principally of Marwari traders. It is difficult to believe that the leaves of the hemp cultivated at Khandwa and the fragments from ganja manufacture do not pass into use as bhang ; but there is no evidence that they do. The Excise Commissioner thinks that the high maximum (zo tolas) for legal possession of bhang affects the licensed import by enabling consumers who travel to bring in the drug for themselves. " Considerable quantities," he says, " are introduced by post also."

305. The Feudatory States and some zamindaris administer their own excise. These are all under engagement to buy their ganja from British wholesale vendors. Their imports are steadily growing, and amounted in 1892-93 to 273 maunds (paragraph 66, Excise Memorandum). Khairagarh and Sonepur alone have sent reports, and they show that their imports are increasing, and are now over 20 maunds each. None of them apparently exports any ganja, though from the position of some of them on the frontier, and the presumably superior quality of Khandwa ganja over that of ganja yielded by ruder methods of cultivation, they might have been expected to do so. But the Native States and Madras zamindaris beyond the frontier all more or less grow their own ganja, and the Dewan of the Sonepur State says that the locally grown article is preferred. There may, however, be some petty export to the Chota Nagpur States, for the British authorities of that division have succeeded in restricting cultivation in them.

306. The Excise memorandum and the statistics give no information about the imports and exports of ganja or the quantity produced in the Presidency. Of the other forms of the raw drugs, charas does not appear to be used, and bhang is but rarely recognised as a distinct article from ganja. Of these, therefore, nothing need be said in the present connection.

307. In order to form an idea of the extent of the traffic in ganja, it is necessary to hazard an estimate of the outturn of the cultivation throughout the Presidency. The area has been estimated at 35o acres of regular cultivation, to which must be added the cultivation of the homestead and desultory kind. The Bengal Excise Report of 1892-93, page 36, gives the average outturn per bigha as 31 maunds, or something less than to maunds an acre. In the Central Provinces it appeared to be much the same figure. Mr. Benson, when giving evidence orally, said that the people of North Arcot and Kistna had both told him that the crop came out about 42o lbs., or 51 maunds to the acre, but he had not been able to test the statement. Except the fact that a higher outturn is got in the Ganja Mahal and at Khandwa, there is no apparent reason why this should be regarded as an unduly low estimate. For the reason stated, however, it may be raised to 6 maunds. And it will be proper to add one maund for the fragments from the manufacture which go to make bhang. The 35o acres of regular cultivation would at this rate, 7 maunds per acre, yield 2,450 maunds. The less systematic cultivation, accompanied by probably less skilful manufacture, may perhaps be estimated to yield 2,000 maunds. The total outturn would thus be 4,450 maunds.


leaving a balance of 3,774 maunds. There is probably some licit importation into Hyderabad from the Northern Sircars, though it would appear from the Hyderabad evidence to be small ; and a certain amount of smuggling not only into Hyderabad, but also to Orissa, the Central Provinces, and Burma. Mysore probably gets some illegal addition to its registered imports. The amount left for consumption in the Presidency and the Native States subordinate to it can hardly exceed 3,500 maunds. And it must be remarked that in the case of Madras ganja, there is not less waste than in the Khandwa drug as far as the Commission can judge. The consumers, therefore, do not probably get a larger share of this produce for actual use than the consumers of the Central Provinces do of the portion of their produce which stays at home. The export to Burma, there is reason to believe, is considerable. The Commission were informed in Burma that the drug came in considerable quantity from Pondicherry and ports on the Nladras coast. All this export would appear to be Madras ganja.

309. Travancore and Pudukottai appear to import their hemp drug. In Travancore the cultivation is prohibited, except possibly in the wildest of the hill tracts, and it does not appear that there is any regular cultivation in Pudukottai. The consumption of the latter State is about 71 maunds, which probably represents the average import. It is estimated that the share of the rent of the opium and bhang farm of the State creditable to the hemp drug is Rs. 5,00o, while the revenue of Pudukottai is Rs. 26o. The Government of the latter State seems to undertake a more direct and detailed management of its hemp excise than the former does, and probably therefore gets a higher rate of revenue upon if The consumption or import of Travancore is therefore probably less than would be indicated by a calculation based on a comparison of the revenue of the two States. It may be estimated at about too maunds. The State of Banganapalle is reported to cultivate 2'2 acres, and produce therefrom 32o maunds of ganja valued at Rs. Boo. The outturn is impossible. Either the State imports a considerable amount of ganja, or its cultivation is much more extensive than reported. The revenue of the Sondur State from the farm of ganja, opium, and snuff is Rs. 31, and there can be no trade in the hemp drug worth mention.

310. The Collector of Ahmednagar states that the outturn of ganja cultivation is 4 to 72 maunds per acre according to soil and season. Of two Satara witnesses, one puts the outturn at 61 maunds, and the other at 8 maunds. A fair average of these figures is 61- maunds. On the average of the last five years, the cultivation of the Deccan and Southern Maratha Country, including the Native States, is about 1, too acres, which at the above rate would yield 7,15o maunds of ganja. The cultivation in the other parts of the Presidency proper is insignificant, and yields only bhang. The whole of the Presidency, including Cutch, Kathiawar, and the other Political Agencies, draws its ganja supply from the Deccan. Baroda also comes to the same market, and so do Sind and Aden.

311. The registered retail sale of the British districts (excluding Sind) is on the five years average 2,120 maunds. This ought to be near the amount of actual consumption, for imports of ganja are compared with the passes on arrival of consignments at the district head-quarters, the taluka, or the village, and the accounts of the retail vendors and their stocks are inspected from time to time by the District and Abkari Officers (Excise Memorandum, paragraph 8). The Commissioner of Customs, Salt, Opium, and Abkari states also (paragraph 14, Excise Memorandum) that the reports from all districts are unanimous that smuggling of these drugs is to all intents and purposes unknown, and he explains why it should not be worth the people's while to engage in illicit practices. But unfortunately it is found on examining the district figures that the provincial total is got simply by adding them up, and that in no less than nine districts there is no registered sale whatever in the year 1892-93. Large districts like Dharwar and Satara are thus imperfectly represented, and the average is falsified by the fact that in other districts the figures for the full quinquennium are not brought into the account. The actual average consumption is evidently very much in excess of 2,12o maunds. Another large addition must be made to the recorded sale on account of the waste which accompanies the handling and distribution of the less highly manufactured ganja found outside Bengal. With these corrections the consumption of British districts alone will account for not less than 3,000 maunds of the total production.

312. A few States and some of the Agencies have sent figures of imports and consumption which exceed a total of 1,000 maunds..
Only one State of Kathiawar is represented in this list—Junagadh. The important State of Kolhapur has no statistics to give. Baroda also would •appear to import Deccan ganja to the amount of about 400 maunds. The consumption of all the Native States which import Bombay ganja cannot be much less than double the amount which has been reported.

313. In British territory the district contractors, and sometimes the holders of smaller farms (Excise Memoramdum, paragraph 8), import on their own account from the places of production. These are all retail vendors. There is only one merchant in the Kolaba district who engages on the wholesale business, and probably the supplies for Sind and other places on the sea board pass through his hands. The farmer for the Bombay district appears to import for himself. It would appear from the Excise memorandum that some ganja is imported from the Central Provinces. It seems to be brought into Khandesh, but there is no evidence that it goes beyond that district. Some may possibly go as far as Nasik. But both in Khandesh and Nasik the cultivation is almost sufficient to supply the demand of those districts. The import from the Central Provinces cannot be large.

314. It will be seen from the following statement that there is a considerable export of ganja by sea. Something less than one-half of the whole goes to British Indian ports, several of which are probably in the Bombay Presidency. A lath: more than a quarter finds its way to foreign Indian ports, which would include those of Cutch and Kathiawar. There is not, however, any definite information of the Indian ports, British and foreign, to which the drug is carried. As much of the drug as is imported into the Presidency and its Native States has, of course, been included in the above survey of import and consumption. About 28 per cent. goes to Aden, Arabia, Africa, and Europe. The export to London is very considerable. There is no reason to suppose that any of the sea export consists of other than Bombay ganja.


316. Bhang occupies such a position in relation to ganja in the Bombay Presidency that it is hardly possible to examine the traffic in it separately. In the Northern Division the cultivation may yield 15o maunds, which would not be more than sufficient to supply the local demand. The bhang produced in Baroda, a very small amount, is not exported. The bhang which generally passes by that name consists of the fragments of leaves and flower head which come away in the manufacture of ganja. If figures had been complete and trustworthy, ganja and bhang might have been put together, and treated as one article of trade. It did not appear advisable to deal thus with a total consumption of only 44 maunds in the year 1892-93, a figure which a comparison with previous years shows to be incorrect. It does not appear that the sale of bhang as a distinct article from ganja exceeds 15o maunds a year in the whole Presidency, excluding Sind. The sale is only registered in the Northern Division and in Khandesh. Mr. Almon states that some of the Surat bhang finds its way to Bombay, and Mr. Campbell mentions import from Palanpur.

317. Charas is only used in Bombay City to the extent of 7 or 8 maunds a year. Seven sers only were sold in Poona for the first time in 1892-93. The drug is imported from Amritsar and Hoshiarpur.

318. The information is not complete enough to make it worth while to examine the individual trade of the Native States. The above general survey of the Presidency supplies the broad fact that all the States get their supply of ganja from the Bombay cultivation. The States in the extreme north of the Presidency, especially Palanpur, grow a little bhang for themselves, and this State may export some of its own growth to Bombay ; but it cannot be much. Some of the southern States probably export part of the produce of the cultivation mentioned in Chapter IV.

319. In Sind bhang takes the place of first importance among the three hemp drugs. Cultivation for the production of this drug amounts to 262 acres on the average of the last five years. The outturn calculated at something under 12 maunds an acre is 3,000 maunds. A high rate is adopted because the whole crop, except the actual sticks, goes into the product. The Excise Reports of 1891-92 and 1892-93 show the sources from which the various districts of Sind get their supplies of the drugs. All the districts, except the Upper Sind Frontier, would appear to consume locally grown bhang. The retail sale on the average of the last five years is 4,539 maunds, so the local production does not cover the consumption. But it is possible that this figure includes transport within the province. The Upper Sind Frontier district would appear to import the drug from the Punjab and Khelat. The statement regarding Khelat may be doubted, for there is very little cultivation there according to the information furnished to the Commission.

320. The imports of ganja average 55 maunds, and the retail sale 22 maunds. It is mostly brought through Karachi from Panvel in the Kolaba district of the Bombay Presidency, where there is a wholesale business carried on in the ganja grown in the Deccan.
Some little may be imported from Cutch, but that also is in all probability the same ganja moving by a different route. The districts of Karachi and the Upper Sind Frontier would appear from the statistics to consume none of it, and Shikarpur very little ; but the registration of the sale in Karacti is obviously imperfect. It was to be expected that the districts of Upper Sind should in respect to the consumption of ganja resemble the Punjab, where the drug is not smoked.

321. The average import of charas is 7o maunds, and the registered retail sale 24 maunds. Amritsar seems to be the source of supply. Though the drug is said to be brought from Afghanistan, Yarkand, and Khorassan, there is no information of any direct import over the Sind Frontier on the west. The Karachi figures of retail sale are again wanting, and the drug would appear to be little used in Thar and Parkar. But the latter district appears to be more addicted to opium. The Acting Commissioner in Sind (Colonel, Crawford) suspects some smuggling of charas and ganja from Jaisalmir through Thar and Parkar, and some illicit import of bhang from Khairpur into surrounding districts. Neither traffic appears to be at all extensive. In the last two years there has been a trifling export of to maunds of ganja by sea from Karachi.

322. The Khairpur State grows 84 acres of bhang, which would yield about 1,000 maunds. The registered retail sale was three and four years ago 1,800 and 1,500 maunds ; it is entered at 276 maunds for 1892-93. The figures cannot be correct. The statistics give no imports of ganja or charas, or any consumption of these drugs. Nor is there any record of export of bhang in the last three years. It is probable that some charas is used, but it may well be that ganja is but rarely smoked.

323. The average area of cultivation in Berar is 6o acres, which by the Khandwa standard would yield something over.500 maunds of ganja. The imports, which come from Khandwa and some from Khandesh, are estimated at Boo maunds (Excise Memorandum). These supplies "are apparently sufficient for the requirements of the people who indulge in this drug." No exports are recorded, and it is stated that there are none. The cultivation in Khandesh has become so reduced that it is doubtful if any ganja comes from that district now. Charas does not appear to be used, and no sale of bhang distinct from ganja is recorded.

324. The statistics of Ajmere give no figures of import, export, or retail sale.
Very little of the hemp drugs is produced locally, and that only in the form of bhang. It is therefore safe to say there is no export. The Assistant Commissioner and Collector of Excise Revenue reports that ganja and charas are imported usually from the Punjab. This is probably true of charas, but the Punjab produces no ganja, and this drug must come from elsewhere, Gwalior being the most convenient, and therefore the most probable, source of supply.

325. In Coorg there is practically no local production of the hemp drugs.
The average import of ganja from the figures of two years is 74 maunds of 28 lbs. each, or 21 Indian
maunds. The average of registered consumption is two-thirds of this amount. The drug imported would seem to be grown in the Madras Presidency. Charas is not used, nor is bhang regarded as a distinct article from ganja.

326. The information from Baluchistan does not enable the Commission to judge of the extent of the trade in the province. The farms in two divisions—Bolan and Quetta-Pishinfetch over Rs. 4,coo each ; but it is not clear that these do not include the right to sell other intoxicating drugs besides the hemp products. There is practically no local production of the drugs. It would appear that the consumption of bhang and ganja are about equal, and that of charas is twelve times as great as either.

327. There is no legitimate trade in Burma. The smuggling which is carried Burma    on on a considerable scale will be dealt with more appropriately in connection with prohibition and excise arrangements. A few facts may be noted in this place. It appears from the information collected that the contraband article is introduced from ports on the Madras coasts, amongst which Pondicherry is prominently mentioned. The volume of the smuggling cannot be estimated. The Financial Commissioner reports the following detections

And the Assistant Collector of Customs reports for 1893-94 (1st April to 3oth November) tolas 30,353, or nearly to maunds. This is probably but a fraction of the total imports. The smuggling into Upper Burma from the Shan States and Kachin Hills is probably insignificant in quantity.

328. The figures of import and retail sale of ganja on the five years' average are respectively 400 and 30o maunds. The drug is brought principally from North Arcot. There is reason to think that some comes into the northern districts from Dharwar in the Bombay Presidency and from the Hyderabad State. There are no exports. Charas is not used, and bhang is not distinct from ganja. The latter remarks apply also to Bangalore, where the average import of ganja is 57 Indian maunds. This also comes from the Madras districts. There appear to be no exports.

329. The report of the Hyderabad State shows that " charas is almost unknown in the whole dominion." Bhang is a byeproduct of ganja cultivation and manufacture. The cultivation extends to between 300 and 400 acres. The Director of Agriculture states that the outturn may be taken to be 5 or 6 maunds per acre. The total produce of the State would then be about 2,000 maunds. The memorandum states that the local production is sufficient to meet the requirements of the people in ordinary seasons. It is only in abnormal years that exports to, or imports from, British territory take place. The average of these for the last five years is 75 maunds of import and 10 maunds of export.

330. The Rajputana States appear to grow most of the bhang they require, and to import ganja and charas. The trade in charas is mostly in the hands of travelling Kabulis, called in these parts Vilayatis ; but bhang and ganja are transported by the local traders of all grades, from Marwaris in a large way of business to Tambolis (pan sellers) and grocers. The following facts about the trade in some of the States are reported :—
Kotah.—A small quantity of bhang is locally produced. Ganja is imported from Jhallawar, Gwalior, and Tonk. No charas has been imported for some years.
Jhallawar.—About 14o maunds of ganja and 26 of bhang are said to be produced locally. About 90 maunds of bhang and ganja are imported and los maunds exported annually. The returns do not distinguish between the two drugs. There is no information about charas.
Jeypore.—It is reported that io,000 maunds of bhang are produced locally. It looks as if the figure was a clerical error, for the export from the State is small, and the local consumption cannot be very enormous. This amount would represent i,000 acres of cultivation, and the account of the cultivation does not justify the belief that there is anything approaching that area. Bhang of a superior kind is imported to the amount of 64 maunds ; of ganja 54 maunds and of charas 129 maunds are brought in from the Punjab ; 27 maunds of bhang are exported.
Kishengarh.—Ganja and bhang are locally produced to a small extent, but they are both also imported,—the former from Malwa, and the latter from Jeypore. Charas is also imported. Figures are not given. There are no exports.
Bikanir.—Some 13 maunds of bhang are produced locally, but no ganja or charas. The three drugs are all imported from the Punjab, Indore, and Jeypore. The bhang, which seems to come through Bhartpur, is called thatia, probably the same word as tatia, the name of the bhang produced in Farakhabad and Hardoi, derived, as Mr. Stoker explains, from a village of the name in the former district. Charas is of two kinds, Indori and Yarkandi ; the former name iiould indicate manufacture in Indore, of which there is no decided proof. The only places in Central India where there is information of any manufacture of this drug are Gwalior and Bhopawar. The import of charas appears to be about 16 maunds and of ganja 4. It is possible that this ganja is what is known in the State as Indori charas ; for the two drugs are mixed up in the accounts, and in one place it is stated that there is no import of ganja. Of bhang, x26 maunds are imported.
Kerowli.—The imports are small : ganja to the extent of Ic• maunds from Gwalior, bhang to the extent of 2 maunds from Jeypore, and charas in very small quantity from the town of Bhartpur. A little ganja and bhang, 3 maunds of each, are exported. Bhang is locally produced in small quantity. The trade appears to be carried on at a fair which is held on the Shivratri.
Alwar.—The small quantity of bhang which is grown locally is almost sufficient for the wants of the State. It is supplemented by occasional import as required. Ganja is neither grown nor imported. There is an annual import of 61 maunds of charas. There is no export of any of the drugs.
Dholpur.—There is no local production. Some 39 maunds of ganja are imported from Antri in Gwalior, half a maund of charas from Agra and Patiala, and 34 maunds of bhang from Kanauj, Chapra, Mhow, and Kerowli. Exports of 16 maunds ganja, 12 maunds bhang, and one quarter maund charas are shown.
Serohi.—The State imports 32 maunds of ganja, but no bhang or charas. There are no exports. It has been stated in a previous chapter that there is a certain amount of bhang and ganja produced in the State. The temples of Mahadeo draw revenue in kind from the hemp drug traffic, and there is probably a large consumption in connection with the holy places on Mount Abu.
Yaisalmir.—Ganja and bhang are locally produced to the extent of 33 maunds. There is no export or import.
Jodhpur. —Besides a small local production of ganja and bhang, the former drug is imported from Indore and the latter from Bhartpur. Charas is supplied by contractors in Ajmere. The imports are annually 49 maunds of bhang and 173 maunds ganja and charas; the exports 5 maunds of bhang and one of ganja and charas.
Bundi.—The local production supplies only a small amount of bhang. The imports, especially of bhang, are extraordinarily high, and would seem to indicate that the State is more or less of an entrepdt of the trade. Ganja goes by two names, Indori and Shahbadi, the latter being probably that imported from Ujjain. The figures of average annual import are—bhang 9,385 maunds, ganja 100 maunds, and charas 25 maunds. There are no figures of export to support the hypothesis that the traffic passes through the State in large measure.
Shahpura.—Ganja and bhang are reported to be brought from Bhilwara, and the former drug is called Indori ganja. These names would point to the country west of Indore as the place of production. The local production of bhang is 125 maunds, and both imports and exports figure at 25 maunds.
Tonk.—The imports and exports are small, and the local production does not appear to be considerable. The figures of import are ganja to maunds, bhang maunds, and charas less than t maund.
Bhartpur.--The State imports about 57 maunds of charas and 35o maunds of bhang, and exports about 5 maunds of the former and a trifling amount of the latter.

331. The information about production and trade in the Central India Agency is far from complete.
Indore.—The cultivation of the Indore State is on the average about 115 acres, which would hardly yield i,000 maunds of ganja. Mr. Gunion puts the figure for ganja and bhang together at goo maunds. There is an average import of 153 maunds of ganja and 7 maunds of bhang, and an export of 377 maunds of ganja. The volume of transport within the State is 452 maunds of ganja and 399 maunds of bhang.
Dewas.--The yearly output in Dewas is reported to be 156 maunds of ganja and 64 maunds of bhang derived from 3o acres of cultivation.
Gwatior.—The memorandum on cultivation in the Gwalior State gives a total area of 400 acres. This might yield as much as 3,50o maunds of ganja and bhang together. These drugs are largely exported to the North-Western Provinces and the States of Rajputana and Central India.
Other States.—There is no information as to the production in other States of the Agency, or the volume of their trade in the hemp drugs.
Indore, Gwalior, and the Central Provinces appear to be the main sources of ganja supply for the whole of Central India and Rajputana and the North-Western Provinces. The evidence and general information tend to show that Indore and Khandwa are being supplanted by Gwalior, though Khandwa still exports largely. As in Rajputana, so in Malwa, charas is for the most part imported from the Punjab by Kabuli traders. Rewah is said to get its supply from Patna. The Indore statistics show no import of this drug. A small amount is said to be made in Gwalior as a bye-product of the ganja harvest, but it must be quite inconsiderable.
332. The average area of cultivation in the Baroda State is about I 1 bighas or 6 acres, of which the outturn is 76 maunds of bhang. It appears that early in 1892 the system of administration was reformed. Exports have consequently ceased, and the nature of the statistics is now materially different from what it was before the change. In the first year of the new order of things the trade was probably disorganised, and it will therefore be better to refer to the figures of 1892-93 alone. These show an import of 214 maunds of ganja and 31 maunds of bhang. The retail sales of ganja in the same year were 438 maunds and of bhang 143 maunds. The ganja would appear to have come from the Deccan, and the bhang may have been partly supplied by Gujarat ; but there is no clear information on the point. There is an export of 91 maunds of ganja entered against the Baroda Division, but there is nothing to show that it went out of the State. Charas is not used in the State. It may be noted that the change in the system of administration above referred to consists in the establishment of depots in which all imports have to be stored, and from which they can only be removed under permit, and apparently a great increase in fixed duties.

333. The whole of the ganja or gard bhang or elzura charas which is prepared in Kashmir, about 70 maunds, is consumed locally. A considerable quantity of bhang is carried away from Jammu into the Punjab. The quantity is not ascertainable. It appears to be gathered near the Punjab frontier. The traffic in charas from Leh through Srinagar has been noticed in connection with the Punjab imports. It would seem that the goods do not ordinarily change hands or break bulk in Kashmir.

334. The exports from Nepal into the North-West Provinces have been noticed. It is probable that a small amount of Nepal charas still finds its way to Calcutta. There may be a little smuggling of ganja into Bengal, but it cannot be important. On the other hand, the Bengal statistics show that Nepal took in 1892-93 177 maunds of Bengal ganja.

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