The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia

4 Cold War Opium Boom

1. U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, "The World Opium Situation," (Washington, D.C., 1970), p. 29.

2. John O'Kearney, "Thai Becomes Opium Center for SE Asia," in The New York Daily News, February 13, 1955.

3. Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap, Peoples' War Peoples' Army (Hanoi: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1961), p. 79.

4. Lieutenant Colonel Grimaldi, Inspecteur des Forces suppl6tives, Inspection des Forces Suppl6tives du Sud Vietnam, Notions de Case sur les Forces suppl&ives du Sud Vietnam (S.P.50.295, May 15, 1954), p. 7.

5. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 25, 1971.

6. Ibid.

7. United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Summary of the Fourth Meeting (E/C.S.7/25), November 29, 1946, p. 4.

8. United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Abolition of Opium Smoking (E/CN.7/244), November 17,1952,p.34.

9. Ibid., p. 36. In 1952 French customs purchased absolutely no opium in Indochina (United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Abolition of Opium Smoking, add. 2, "Laos Report for the Year 1952," March 12, 1953, p. 4).

10. Ibid., p. 18.

11. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 25, 1971. A number of high-ranking Vietnamese officials have also confirmed the existence of Operation X, including Col. Tran Dinh Lan, former director of military intelligence for the chief of staff of the Vietnamese Army (interview, Paris, France, March 18, 1971), and Mr. Nghiem Van Tri, former Minister of Defense (interview, Paris, France, March 30, 1971). One former CIA agent reports that it was General Salan who first organized Operation X in the late 1940s (interview with Lt. Col. Lucien Conein, McLean, Virginia, June 18, 1971).

12. Interview with Gen. Mai Huu Xuan, Saigon, Vietnam, July 19, 1971.

13. Interview with Gen. Maurice Belleux, Paris, France, March 23, 1971.

14. Interview with Touby Lyfoung, Vientiane, Laos, September 1, 1971.

15. Interview with Gen. Maurice Belleux, Paris, France, March 23, 1971.

16. Bernard B. Fall, "Portrait of the 'Centurion,' " in Roger Trinquier, Modern Warfare (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964), p. xiii.

17. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 23, 1971. (Colonel Trinquier read from a training manual he prepared for MACG officers during the First Indochina War. All of the following material on his four-stage method is based on this manual.)

18. Trinquier, Modern Warfare, p. 105.

19. For Trinquier's account of his role in the Katanga revolt see Colonel Trinquier, Jacques Duchemin, and Jadques Le Bailley, Notre Guerre an Katanga (Paris: Editions de la Pens6e Moderne, 1963); Fall, "Portrait of a 'Centurion,' " p. xv.

20. Trinquier, Modern Warfare, p. 109.

21. Ibid., p. I 11.

22. Interview with Touby Lyfoung, Vientiane, Laos, September 1, 1971.

23. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 25, 197 1.

24. Donald Lancaster, The Emancipation of French Indochina (New York: Oxford University Press, 1961), p. 257.

25. Bernard B. Fall, Anatomy of a Crisis (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1969), pp. 49-52.

26. Interview with Gen. Albert Sore, Biarritz, France, April 7, 1971.

27. Interview with Gen. Edward G. Lansdale, Alexandria, Virginia, June 17, 1971.

28. Bernard B. Fall, Hell in a Very Small Place (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1967), pp. 33-37.

29. Interview with Colonel Then, Versailles, France, April 2, 1971.

30. Bernard B. Fall, Hell in a Very Small Place, pp. 318-320.

31. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 25, 1971. Jules Roy says that on May 4th the Dien Bien Phu defenders learned that, "Colonel Trinquier, thanks to a fund in the form of bars of silver, had just recruited fifteen hundred Meos and was beginning to come upcountry with them from the Plain of Jarres toward Muong Son, about sixty miles south of Dienbienphu as the crow flies" (Jules Roy, The Battle of Dienbienphu [New York: Harper & Row, 1965), p. 261).

32. Fall, Hell in a Very Small Place, p. 442.

33. Interview with Jean Jerusalemy, Paris, France, April 2, 1971.

34. John T. McAlister, "Mountain Minorities and the Viet Minh," in Peter Kunstadter, ed., Southeast Asian Tribes, Minorities, and Nations (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 812, 825-826.

35. Jean Jerusalemy, "Monographie sur le Pays Tai," mimeographed (n.d.), P. 18. 17

36. McAlister, "Moutain Minorities and the Viet Minh," pp. 813-814.

37. Jerusalemy, "Monographic sur le Pays Tai," p. 79.

38. Interview with Jean Jerusalemy, Paris, France, April 2, 1971.

39. Jerusalemy, "Monographie sur le Pays Tai," pp. 29-30,

40. Interview with Jean Jerusalemy, Paris, France, April 2, 1971. For background on opium and the Meo in the Tai highlands, see McAlister, "Mountain Minorities and the Viet Minh," pp. 817-820.

41. McAlister, "Mountain Minorities and the Viet Minh," pp. 823-824.

42. Ibid., p. 825.

43. Jerusalemy, "Monographic sur le Pays Tai," p. 29.

44. Interview with Jean Jerusalemy, Paris, France, April 2, 1971.

45. McAlister, "Mountain Minorities and the Viet Minh," p. 830.

46. Giap, Peoples' War Peoples' Army, p. 183.

47. Fall, Hell in a Very Small Place, pp. 320-321.

48. Philippe Devillers and Jean Lacouture, End of a War (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1969), pp. 151-152.

49. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 25, 1971.

50. Interview with Gen. Maurice Belleux, Paris France, March 23, 1971.

51. Conversation with Commandant D6sir6, Paris, France, March 31, 1971.

52. Interview with Touby Lyfoung, Vientiane, Laos, September 1, 1971.

53. Interview with Lt. Col. Lucien Conein, McLean, Virginia, June 18, 1971.

54. Interview with Col. Roger Trinquier, Paris, France, March 25, 1971.

55. Interview with Gen. Maurice Belleux, Paris, France, March 23, 1971. This is Gen. Belleux's version of the incident; a French author has a simpler account:

"For opium it was exactly the same. The MACG aircraft made millions of piasters transporting the merchandise, and each level took its cut of this traffic, often in good faith. Until the day when, at a base, an ingenuous officer noticed the transfer of mysterious trunks from one DC-3 to another, which was none other than that of the commander in chief. Shocked, he reported it to his superiors. Then, by chance, the Vietnamese Police (who were hardly a model of virtue) made a raid on a Saigon warehouse where there were stockpiles of hundreds of kilos of opium.

"This was the beginning of a shadowy and sordid affair in which everybody attacked and defended himself over the extent to which he was hostile or favorable to the conduct of the 'dirty war' " (Claude Paillat, Dossier secrete de l7ndochine [Paris: Les Presses de la Cit6, 19641, p. 340).

56. Ibid.

57. In 1929, for example, out of 71.7 tons of opium sold by the Indochina Opium R6gie, 38.0 tons were consumed in Cochin China (Exposition coloniale internationale, Paris 1931, Indochine franqaise, Section g6n&ale, Administration des Douanes et Roigies en Indochine (Hanoi: Imprimerie d'Extr8me Orient, 1930], pp. 6t62).

58. Chef de Bataillon A. M. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," mimeographed (December 1945), pp. 4-5.

59. Ngo Vinh Long, "The Colonized Peasants of Viet-Nam: 1900-1945," (1970), p. 78.

60. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," pp. 22-25.

61. Ibid., pp. 6-8.

62. Interview with Lai Van Sang, Paris, France, March 22, 1971. (Lai Van Sang was Binh Xuyen military counselor and head of the National Police, 1954-1955.)

63. Huynh Kim Khanh, "Background of the Vietnamese August Revolution," The Journal of Asia Studies 25, no. 4 (August 1971), 771-772.

64. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," pp. 13-14.

65. Ibid., p. 16.

66. Bernard B. Fall, The Two Vietnams (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1967), pp. 64-65.

67. Ellen J. Hammer, The Struggle for Indochina, 1940-1955 (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1967), pp. 113-119; Jean Julien Fonde, Traitez a tout Prix (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1971 ), pp. 18-22.

68. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," p. 17.

69. The Avant-Garde Youth Movement had been started by GovernorGeneral Decoux to channel the enthusiasms of Vietnamese youth in a pro-French direction, and by 1945 it was one of the most powerful political groups in Saigon, with a cell in each city ward. By this time its tone was strongly anticolonialist, and its director, Dr. Pham Ngoc Thach, was a secret member of the Viet Minh (Philippe Devillers, Histoire de Vietnam de 1940 d 1952 [Paris: Editions du Seuil, 19521, pp.140-141).

70. Interview with Lai Van Sang, Paris, France, March 22, 1971.

71. Hammer, The Struggle for Indochina, 1940-1955, p. 120.

72. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," p. 44.

73. Interview with Lai Van Sang, Paris, France, March 22, 1971.

74. Interview with Gen. Maurice Belleux, Paris, France, March 23, 1971.

75. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," pp. 35-36.

76. Ibid., pp. 70-71.

77. Antoine Savani, "Notes sur le Phat Giao Hoa Hao," mimeographed (n.d.), pp. 30-33.

78. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," pp. 103-104.

79. Ibid., pp. 110-111.

80. Lucien Bodard, The Quicksand War: Prelude to Vietnam (Boston:Little, Brown and Co., 1967), p. 114; Jean Julien Fonde, Traitez a tout Prix, p. 32.

81. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," pp. 118-119.

82. Ibid., pp. 121-122.

83. Interview with Lai Huu Tai, Paris, France, March 28, 1971.

84. Interview with President Nguyen Van Tam, Paris, France, March 1971.

85. Lancaster, The Emancipation of French Indochina, p. 164.

86. Interview with Lai Van Sang, Paris, France, March 22, 1971; Lucien Bodard, L'Humiliation (Paris: Gallimard, 1965), p. 120.

87. F.T.S.V. 2enlo Bureau, "Les Binh Xuyen," carbon typescript (1 531954), p. 17.

88. Bodard, The Quicksand War: Prelude to Vietnam, p. 110.

89. F.T.S.V. 2-11e Bureau, "Les Binh Xuyen," p. 18.

90. Lancaster, The Emancipation of French Indochina, p, 379.

91. In reference to the Binh Xuyen's involvement in the opium trade the 2-1- Bureau commented, "Naturally all of the clandestine traffics, the most interesting by definition, are not forgotten and cover a wide range including arms, opium, and contraband of all forms as well as other unsavory activities" (F.T.S.V. 2eme Bureau, "Les Binh Xuyen," p. 16).

92. Edward G. Lansdale, Subject: The Cao Dai, To Ambassador Bunker and members, U.S. Mission Council, (May 1968), p. 17.

93. Denis Warner, The Last Confucian (London: Angus & Robertson, 1964), p. 17.

94. The French had few illusions about Bay Vien, and in a 1954 report said, "The thundering success of this former resident of Puolo Condore [Con Son Prison Island] should not be surprising if one considers that he has preserved intact from his tumultuous past certain methods which are closer to those of the celebrated bands of the heroic epoch of Chicago than to ordinary commercial transactions." (F.T.S.V. 2"It' Bureau, "Les Binh Xuyen," p. 15.)

95. F.T.S.V. 2-111 Bureau, "Les Binh Xuyen," p. 17.

96. Ibid., p. 15.

97. Lansdale, memo to Ambassador Bunker et al., May 1968, p. 17.

98. Lancaster, The Emancipation of French Indochina, pp. 187-188.

99. The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. I (Boston: The Beacon Press, 1971 ), pp. 180-18 1.

100. Ibid., p. 182. Although U.S. support for Diem remained an open question on the diplomatic level, the CIA gave him its unqualified support from the very beginning of his tenure as Prime Minister. According to a State Department official, "the Central Intelligence Agency was given the mission of helping Diem" in June 1954 and Colonel Lansdale was sent to Saigon to carry out this mission. (Chester L. Cooper, The Lost Crusade [New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1970], p. 129.)

101. Pierre Brocheux, "L'Economie et la Soci6t6 dans L'Ouest de la Cochinchine pendant la Periode coloniale ( 1890-1940) " (Ph.D. thesis, University of Paris, 1969), p. 298.

102. Eug&ne Saccomano, Bandits a Marseille (Paris: Julliard, 1968), p. 44.

103. In 1958 a U.S. narcotics agent told a Senate subcommittee, "When French Indochina existed, there were quantities of opium that were shipped to the labs . . . around Marseille, France, to the Corsican underworld there, and then transshipped to the United States" (U.S. Congress, Senate Select Committee on Improper Activities in the Labor Management Field, Hearings, 85th Cong., 2nd sess., 1959, p. 1225, cited in Earth, March 1972, pp. 93-94).

104. Bodard, L'Humiliation, pp. 80-81.

105. Bodard, The Quicksand War: Prelude to Vietnam, pp. 121, 124.

106. Interview with Gen. Edward G. Lansdale, Alexandria, Virginia, June 17, 1971.

107. Bernard B. Fall, The Two Vietnams (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1967), pp. 245-246; The New York Times, The Pentagon Papers (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1971 ), p. 60.

108. Lansdale, memo to Ambassador Bunker et al., May 1968, p. 14.

109. Ibid., p. 2.

110. Ibid., p. 11.

111. Grimaldi, Notions de Case sur les Forces suppl&ives du Sud Vietnam, p. 24.

112. Fall, The Two Vietnams, pp. 245-246.

113. Lansdale, memo to Ambassador Bunker et al., May 1968, pp. 15-16.

114. Interview with Gen. Edward G. Lansdale, Alexandria, Virginia, June 17, 1971; Edward G. Lansdale, In the Midst of Wars (New York: Harper & Row, 1972), pp. 221-224.

115. Lansdale, In the Midst of Wars, pp. 245-247; The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. 1, p. 230.

116. The New York Times, The Pentagon Papers, p. 21.

117. Interview with Gen. Mai Huu Xuan, Saigon, Vietnam, July 19, 1971.

118. Lansdale, In the Midst of Wars, p. 270.

119. The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. 1, p. 231.

120. Ibid., p. 233.

121. The New York Times, The Pentagon Papers, p. 22.

122. Interview with Lt. Col. Lucien Conein, McLean, Virginia, June 18, 1971.

123. Lansdale, memo to Ambassador Bunker et al., May 1968, p. 17.

124. Lansdale, In the Midst of Wars, pp. 316-317.

125. Ibid., p. 318.

126. The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. 1, pp. 238-239.

127. The New York Times, March 28, 1955, p. 26.

128. Savani, "Notes sur les Binh Xuyen," p. 198.

129. See Chapter 5.

130. The New York Times, September 17, 1963, p. 45.

131. Interview with William Young, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 8, 1971; The New York Times, August 11, 1971, p. 1.

132. John T. McAlister, Vietnam: The Origins of the Revolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1969), pp. 235, 242.

133. Bodard, The Quicksand War, p. 12; for a detailed analysis of Yunnan politics during this period, see A. Doak Barnett, China on the Eve of Communist Takeover (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1963), 282-295.

134. Lancaster, The Emancipation of French Idonchina, p. 150.

135. The New York Times, July 28, 1951, p. 3; Bodard, The Quicksand War, pp.162-163.

136. Lancaster, The Emancipation of French Indochina, p. 203.

137. Government of the Union of Burma, The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma (Rangoon: 1953), p. 8.

138. The New York Times, The Pentagon Papers, p. 10.

139. Joint Chiefs of Staff, "Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense," April 10, 1950, in The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. 1, p. 366.

140. Ibid.

141. David Wise and Thomas B. Ross, The Invisible Government (New York: Random House, 1964), pp. 130-131.

142. NSC Staff Study, "United States Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Communist Aggression in Southeast Asia," February 13, 1952, in The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. I, p. 377.

143. The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma, P. 15.

144. Ibid., p. 35.

145. Ibid., pp. 13-15.

146. Joseph and Stewart Alsop, Nippon Times (March 23, 1953), quoted in The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma, p. 120.

147. The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma, pp. 13-14.

148. Ibid., p. 16.

149. Ibid., p. 13; Peter Dale Scott, "Air America: Flying the U.S. into Laos," in Nina S. Adams and Alfred W. McCoy, eds., Laos: War and Revolution (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), pp. 306-307.

150. Wise and Ross, The Invisible Government, p. 131.

151. The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Bur a, pp. 40-41.

152. Interview with Rev. Paul Lewis, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 7, 1971.

153. The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma, p. 15. Smuggling across the Chinese border became increasingly difficult after the defeat of the Nationalist government. After interviewing Chinese Muslim exiles in Rangoon in June and July 1962, an Israeli scholar reported, "The frontier, which had never been clearly marked or demarcated, was closed and strictly guarded after 1950 when the Government of Communist China established its authority in these regions. Until then the Panthays [Chinese Muslims] had been able to move freely and easily between Yunnan and Burma" (Moshe Yegar, "The Panthay (Chinese Muslims) of Burma and Yunnan," Journal of Southeast Asian History 7, no. I [March 1966], 82).

154. The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma, p. 14.

155. Ibid., p. 16.

156. Interview with Rev. Paul Lewis, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 7, 1971.

157. The Ministry of Information, Kuomintang Aggression Against Burma, p. 12.

158. Ibid., p. 15.

159. The New York Times, March 9, 1952, p. 8.

160. Wise and Ross, The Invisible Government, pp. 132-133.

161. Hugh Tinker, The Union of Burma (London: Oxford University Press, 1957), p. 53.

162. Wise and Ross, The Invisible Government, pp. 132-133.

163. Interview with William vanden Heuvel, New York City, June 21, 1971. (William vanden Heuvel was executive assistant to Ambassador Donovan and had noted this incident in his personal journal.)

164. Tinkei, The Union of Burma, pp. 53-54.

165. Interview with Rev. Paul Lewis, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 7, 1971. (Reverend Lewis acts as a mailman for many of these separated Lahu families and receives two or three letters a week from Taiwan.)

166. The Nation (Rangoon), March 19, 1954, p. 1.

167. Ibid., March 21, 1954, p. 1.

168. The New York Times, May 31, 1954, p. 2.

169. Tinker, The Union of Burma, p. 55.

170. Interview with Col. Chen Mo Su, Chiang Khong, Thailand, September 10, 1971. (Colonel Chen is KMT commander at Chiang Khong.)

171. Elaine T. Lewis, "The Hill Peoples of Kengtung State," Practical Anthropology 4, no. 6 (November-December 1957), 226.

172. The New York Times, May 19, 1959, p. 6.

173. Time, February 10, 1961, p. 22.

174. Interview with Colonel Chen Mo Su, Chiang Khong, Thailand, September 10, 1971.

175. The Guardian (Rangoon), January 30, 1961, p. 1.

176. Wise and Ross, The Invisible Government, p. 134.

177. The New York Times, February 23, 1961, p. 3.

178. Ibid., February 18, 1961, p. 1; ibid., March 3, 1961, p. 1.

179. Ibid., April 6, 1961, p. 8.

180. Ibid., April 12, 1961, p. 20.

181. Interview with William Young, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 8, 1971.

182. The New York Times, March 9, 1952, p. 8.

183. Fred W. Riggs, Thailand: The Modernization of a Bureaucratic Polity (Honolulu: East-West Center Pfess, 1966), pp. 242-245.

184. Ibid., p. 236.

185. The New York Times, July 23, 1951, p. 2.

186. United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Summary of the Fourth Meeting, p. 4.

187. United Nations, Economic and Social Council, Commission on Narcotic Drugs, Agenda of the Ninth Meeting (E/C.S.7/27), December 3, 1946, pp. 6-9.

188. Far Eastern Economic Review, November 23, 1950, p. 625.

189. Paul T. Cohen, "Hill Trading in the Mountain Ranges of Northern Thailand" (1968), p. 4.

190. Darrell Berrigan, "They Smuggle Dope by the Ton," The Saturday Evening Post, May 5, 1956, p. 157.

191. New York Daily News, February 13, 1955.

192. The New York Times, November 7, 1948, p. 30.

193. Berrigan, "They Smuggle Dope by the Ton," pp. 157-158.

194. Warner, The Last Confucian, p. 284.

195. Ibid; The New York Times, September 20, 1957, p. 7.

196. Riggs, Thailand: The Modernization of a Bureaucratic Polity, p. 239.

197. The New York Times, November 6, 1957, p. 34.

198. Warner, The Last Confucian, p. 282.

199. G. William Skinner, Chinese Society in Thailand: An Analytical History (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1957), p. 325.

200. Ibid., p. 326.

201. U.S., National Security Council, "Statement of Policy by the National

Security Council on United States Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Southeast Asia," in The Pentagon Papers, Senator Gravel Edition, vol. 1, p. 438.

202. Skinner, Chinese Society in Thailand: An Analytical History, pp. 328, 330,335,340-343.

203. Wendell Blanchard, Thailand, Its People, Its Society, Its Culture (N w Haven, Conn.: Human Relations Area Files Press, 1958), p. 198.

204. For examples of such incidents, see Bangkok Post, March 11, 1955, and July 14, 1955.

205. For some of Phao's public statements see Bangkok Post, February 10, 1950, February 20, 1950.

206. ]bid., December 3, 1953, December 4, 1953.

207. Ibid., July 14, 1955.

208. Berrigan, "They Smuggle Dope by the Ton," pp. 42, 156.

209. Bangkok Post, July 15, 1955.

210. ]bid., July 29, 1955.

211. Berrigan, "They Smuggle Dope by the Ton," p. 156.

212. The New York Times, August 25, 1955, p. 3.

213. ]bid., September 4, 1955, p. 5.

214. Bangkok Post, September 21, 1955.

215. Skinner, Chinese Society in Thailand: An Analytical History, p. 343.

216. Warner, The Last Confucian, p. 286.

217. Blanchard, Thailand, Its People, Its Society, Its Culture, p. 199.

218. The New York Times, September 20, 1957, p. 7.

219. Interview with William Young, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 14, 1971.

220. Bangkok World, November 17, 1957.

221. Bangkok Post, February 10, 1958.

222. Warner, The Last Confucian, pp. 289-291.

223. Cohen, "Hill Trading in the Mountain Ranges of Northern Thailand," P. 11.

224. W. W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp. 6-9. Hla Myint, The Econorm . cs of the Developing Countries (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964), pp. 14-16.

225. League of Nations, Advisory Committee on the Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs, Annual Reports on the Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs for the Year 1939, p. 42.

226. The New York Times, September 17, 1963, p. 45.

227. League of Nations, Advisory Committee on the Traffic in Opium and Other Dangerous Drugs, Minutes of the First Session (May 24-June 7, 1923), p. 187. Anthropological research has shown that there was no substantial increase in Thai opium production until 1947 (Cohen, "Hill Trading in the Mountain Ranges of Northern Thailand," pp. 1-2).

228. In 1967 a U.N. survey team estimated Thailand's opium production at 145 tons. Since most of the expansion in production had taken place during the 1950s, an estimate of over one hundred tons for the early 1960s is believed to be a conservative one (Report of the United Nations Survey Team on the Economic and Social Needs of the Opium Producing Areas in Thailand [Bangkok: Government House Printing Office, 19671, p. 59).

229. U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, "The World Opium Situation," p. 29.

230. Harry J. Anslinger, The Murderers (New York: Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1961), p. 230.

231. Free China Weekly, February 14, 1971.

232. Interview with Graham Crookdake, Hong Kong, July 5, 1971.

233. Adrian Cowell, The Opium Trail (ATV, London, filmed 1964-1965), reel no. 1; interview with Adrian Cowell, London, England, March 9, 1971.

234. Interview with William Young, Chiangmai, Thailand, September 8, 1971.

235. U.S. Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, "The World Opium Situation," p. 22.

236. Interview with John Warner, Washington, D.C., October 14, 1971.