No Credit Check Payday Loans
ALL BOOKS
Seeds

Pharmacology

Substances
Overdose

JoomlaWatch Agent

Visitors hit counter, stats, email report, location on a map, SEO for Joomla, Wordpress, Drupal, Magento and Prestashop

JoomlaWatch Users

JoomlaWatch Visitors



54% United States  United States
11.3% United Kingdom  United Kingdom
5.9% Australia  Australia
5.6% Canada  Canada
3.3% Philippines  Philippines
2.2% Kuwait  Kuwait
2.1% India  India
1.6% Germany  Germany
1.5% Netherlands  Netherlands
1.1% France  France

Today: 182
Yesterday: 310
This Week: 1545
Last Week: 2303
This Month: 5357
Last Month: 5638
Total: 24122


Chapter 21. "Desirable" and "Undesirable" Effects PDF Print E-mail
User Rating: / 0
PoorBest 
Books - On Being Stoned
Written by Charles T. Tart   
Saturday, 26 March 2011 00:00

Chapter 21.    "Desirable" and "Undesirable" Effects


BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION

Non-Objectivity of Classification

Classifying the 214 possible effect descriptions[1] as "desirable" or "undesirable" is the least objective analysis of the entire study, and probably represents my personal values as much as or more than any general standards of what is desirable and undesirable.
For example, are visual hallucinations—seeing things that aren't there—(Chapter 6) per se undesirable? Many persons, especially those influenced by traditional medical models of disease, would say yes, yet my pilot subjects and informants indicated that this was usually a pleasurable and interesting effect. To sit at home, know that you are under the influence of marijuana, and see, for example, a flowing, colored ball floating in the air is most interesting, if not joyful.
What about emotional crises, "freaking out" (Chapter 16)? Again, comments by the users in describing their experiences and comments of informants indicated that while this may have been quite unpleasant at the time, it may also be highly valued in retrospect as providing necessary catharsis and/or insights into problem areas.

 

Criteria for "Undesirable" Effects

The criteria I finally chose for selecting what I hoped would be unequivocally negative effects, i.e., effects which no one would value, were that: (1) the effect is clearly unpleasant to experience; and (2) it has no later redeeming value, other than the user probably learns to avoid it in the future. Of the 214 effects, 19 met these criteria.
Others will include more or fewer in their own "undesirable" list, depending on their own values.

 

LEVELS OF INTOXICATION FOR UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS

The 19 "undesirable" effects are plotted with respect to level of intoxication in Figure 21-1. Descriptions will not be repeated here as they have all been presented in other chapters. Question numbers are given in the figure if the reader wishes to refresh himself on the exact wording of the question. The overall ordering of effects is highly significant (p <<< .0005).

 

FIGURE 21-1. "UNDESIRABLE" EFFECTS AND LEVELS OF INTOXICATION
Just Fairly Strongly Very
Strongly
Maximum

Type size code:
CHARACTERISTIC
COMMON
INFREQUENT
Rare




Vomit (Q210)




Feel dizzy, nauseated (Q74)



CAN'T COME DOWN (Q205)



Possessed, hostile force (Q180)







Sounds blurry (Q26)






SENSE OF BALANCE ERRATIC (Q103)






HARD TO ORGANIZE NEXT DAY (Q209)






Worry about losing control (Q171)






HARD TO FALL ASLEEP (Q196)





Vision blurry (Q11)





CAN'T THINK CLEARLY, THOUGHTS SLIP AWAY (Q134)





Sleep poor, restless (Q200)





FEEL PARANOID ABOUT COMPANIONS (Q108)




MIND FEELS LESS EFFICIENT ON PROBLEMS (Q142)




FEEL PHYSICALLY WEAKER (Q9H)




EASILY SIDETRACKED (Q175)



MEMORY WORSE FOR FORGOTTEN EVENTS (Q152)



WORK LESS ACCURATELY ON PROBLEMS, LATER EVALUATION (Q144)


Invariably feel bad when stoned (Q166)

Just Fairly Strongly Very
Strongly
Maximum

Undesirable effects are not frequent. Of the 19 effects, one was characteristic, four were common, six were infrequent, and eight were rare. For the other 184 effects, which could be rated for frequency of occurrence and which were pleasant, emotionally interesting, or equivocally undesirable, 29 were characteristic, 91 were common, 51 were infrequent, and 13 were rare. The clearly undesirable effects thus occur much less frequently (p <.0005) than the general run of effects. This is, of course, not surprising, as selecting experienced marijuana users for the present study assures getting a sample for whom pleasant effects predominate over unpleasant ones.
As Figure 21-1 shows, the relatively frequent "undesirable" effects, four dealing with decreased efficiency on problem solving[2] and one with feeling physically weak, begin to occur around the Strong level of intoxication. All the undesirable effects beginning at Very Strong and higher are infrequent or rare.

 

MODULATING FACTORS

The relatively linear effects of various background factors[3] are summarized in Table 21-1.
Moderate Total users indicated higher levels for not being able to come down when necessary than either Light or Heavy Total users.
It is of interest to note that many of the undesirable effects of intoxication in inexperienced users may be transitional ones that fade out with greater experience. Of the 19 effects, almost half are either significantly less frequent or occur at significantly higher levels for more experienced drug users.

TABLE 21-1 EFFECTS OF BACKGROUND FACTORS ON

 

TABLE 21-1
EFFECTS OF BACKGROUND FACTORS ON "UNDESIRABLE" EFFECTS
BACKGROUND FACTORS EFFECTS
More Drug Experience More frequent:
Get sidetracked





More Intoxicated for:
Vision blurry
Invariably feel bad
Get sidetracked
Less frequent:
Feel paranoid
Thoughts slip away before fully grasped
Mind feels less efficient
Worry about losing control
Hard to organize next day
Can't come down when necessary



Older More frequent:
Hard to organize next day

More intoxicated for:
Sense of balance erratic
Less frequent:
Get sidetracked


More Educated Less frequent:
Memory worse
Get sidetracked

Less intoxicated for:
Get sidetracked
Hard to organize next day
Males Less frequent:
Vision blurry
Sense of balance erratic
Can't come down when necessary
Meditators Less intoxicated for:
Feel paranoid

 

SUMMARY

Less than 10 percent of the effects of intoxication investigated in this study seemed unequivocally "undesirable" in nature, and these effects were primarily infrequent and rare. With greater drug experience, almost half of these became even less frequent or were shifted to very high levels of intoxication. The pleasures of intoxication far outweigh the drawbacks in reports of experienced users.

 

Footnotes

1. This includes the regular 206 items plus 8 validity scale items which were reported on in the text because of their inherent interest. (back)
2. 0ne of my more sophisticated informants suggests that it is misleading to classify difficulty in problem solving as an unequivocally "undesirable" effect. This is so in a situation where the user is strongly intoxicated and suddenly forced to work on conventional problems, but ordinarily the user will not get intoxicated if he expects to have to work on conventional problems. He may get moderately intoxicated to work on a problem requiring much deliberate work and original points of view, or very strongly intoxicated if originality of solution but not sustained concentration on the problem is required. (back)
3. For statistical reasons, the background analyses are not very sensitive here. Since most of the "undesirable" effects were infrequent or rare, only very large differences would show up in the background analyses. (back)

 

Our valuable member Charles T. Tart has been with us since Saturday, 25 December 2010.

Show Other Articles Of This Author